Skip to main content

Full text of "Beef : how to choose and cook it"

See other formats

§ + M r^" Ure Canadian Agriculture Library 

■ Canada Biblioth^que canadienne de ('agriculture 

Ottawa K1 A 0C5 

4 4 4 


4 4 4 

How to Choose 


Cook it 




















How to Choose and 
Cook it 



Published by authority of the Hon. James G. Gardiner. Minister of Agriculture 
Ottawa, Canada 





THIS booklet has been prepared in the hope that it will create a 
keener appreciation of first-class beef on the part of Canadian 
consumers, and that it will assist them in obtaining the greatest 
possible value for their money. The principle that the lowest-priced article 
is often the dearest in the end is particularly true of beef, and it should be 
remembered in purchasing beef that in the interests of true economy due 
regard to price must be supplemented by wise selection and proper prepar- 

The information presented in these pages is based on the latest and 
most reliable data available; it has been submitted to and approved by 
several authorities who are regarded as specialists on this subject. It is 
felt, therefore, that the suggestions given, together with the positive identi- 
fication of quality now made possible through the Beef Grading Service 
should enable the consumer to purchase and use beef with greater assurance 
of securing value and satisfaction. 

Additional copies of this booklet, copies of Beef Chart, showing m 
colours the various cuts of beef, and other information respecting the Beef 
Grading Service may be obtained from the Dominion Live Stock Branch, 

Page Five 


Food Value of Beef 

Sirloin steak 

THE appreciation of good beef by- 
Anglo-Saxon peoples is tradi- 
tional. Poets have sung its 
praises and even statesmen have 
waxed eloquent upon the merits 
of tempting roast and juicy 
steak. Fame and fortune have 
been won, and reputations which 
outlived the centuries have been 
established upon the manner in which beef has been featured and served. 
This popularity of beef is well merited. Beef, with its enticing aroma, 
its delicious flavour, its appetizing appearance and its remarkably high 
food value, is pre-eminently suited to grace the festive board or the humblest 
dinner table. The irresistible appeal of good beef is common to people of 
every walk of life; and its digestibility, availability, reasonable cost, ease 
of preparation and the variety of ways in which it may be served adapt it 
to the diet of rich and poor, young and old. 

Probably no other food is more attractive to the appetite of man than 
a piece of good beef. As steak or roast, hot or cold, or in some other of the 
many varied forms in which it can be served, beef carries a universal appeal 
to the palate. This palatability of beef is in itself a desirable quality as 
it stimulates the secretion and flow of the digestive fluids and thus aids the 
process of digestion. It is generally sound policy to eat foods which taste 
good and which appeal to a normal appetite, as taste and enjoyment of 
food are necessary to efficient digestion. 

The popularity of beef, however, has a much deeper foundation than 
simply its appeal to the palate. Recent experiments have shown that 
man's natural fondness for meat is based upon a sound scientific founda- 
tion, as meat not only contains many of the elements necessary for the 
proper growth and development of the human body, but it supplements and 
improves to a great extent the value of many of the nutrients found in 
grains and vegetables. Beef is a very valuable source of protein, which is 
a tissue building and repairing food; the fat furnishes heat and energy; 
and the mineral salts, such as iron and phosphorus, as well as the vitamines, 
contained in beef are in a form that is readily assimilated. 

The dietetic value, however, of any food depends not simply upon the 
nutrients which it contains, but also upon the thoroughness with which 


Page Six 


those nutrients are utilized by the system. From this point of view, beef 
has a particularly high food value as it is a very easily digested and com- 
pletely assimilated food. Experiments have shown that over ninety-five 
per cent of the protein and fat of beef is digested by the body under normal 
conditions. There is no satisfactory substitute for beef. While certain 
other foods are relatively rich in protein, the losses in digestion, or in meta- 
bolism, or in both, are so great as considerably to offset the value of these 
foods as suitable sources of protein. 

Man's natural inclination, supported by definite scientific investiga- 
tion, has established the fact that a mixed diet is most suitable to the 
requirements of the average human body under normal conditions. A 
properly balanced diet should therefore include a reasonable amount of 
beef in addition to green, leafy vegetables, cereals, eggs, milk and fruits. 
The real problem for the consumer is simply one of wise and careful buying 
and skilful preparation. 


Page Seven 



Round steak 

selecting beef, the most im- 
portant points to be considered 
are: freedom from disease, sanita- 
. tion and quality. The purchase of 
beef from diseased animals may be 
guarded against by ascertaining 
that the round, purple stamp 
bearing the words "Canada Ap- 
proved" appears on some portion 
of the side from which your pur- 
chase is cut. This stamp indicates 
that the beef has passed federal 
inspection for health and that the establishment where it was dressed has 
complied with the sanitary requirements. Then, if only those dealers are 
patronized who keep their premises clean and who observe proper sanitary 
precautions in the handling of their goods, there should be little danger of 
getting beef which is unfit for food. 

The quality of beef, however, is not always so easy to determine 
Possibly there is no other article of food in which high quality is more 
important, or in which the quality is more variable, more difficult to 
identify, or more subject to misrepresentation. Beef of poor quality is a 
most unsatisfactory product, and, at the prices usually paid for it, is any- 
thing but economical buying. It lacks in flavour, tenderness and juiciness- 
it contains a greater percentage of bone and waste in proportion to edible 
matter; and because the edible matter which it does contain is so lacking 
in palatabihty, much of it is discarded and therefore wasted. On the other 
hand, good beef from a choice, well-finished animal not only represents 
greater food value, but it is delicious served either hot or cold, and is there- 
fore utilized to the last morsel. 

But unless one happens to be an expert judge, or is fortunate enough 
to have a dealer who can be relied upon to furnish the quality desired, the 
buying of beef is usually quite a serious domestic problem. Sometimes 
the purchase may be fairly satisfactory; at other times the same cut at the 
same price will prove disappointing. There is no certainty of getting 
consistent quality or uniform value. Unfortunately for the consumer a 
considerable proportion of the beef marketed in Canada represents discards 
from the dairying industry. While beef of this class must necessarily be 


Pagt Elfhl 


disposed of in some way, and therefore has a legitimate place in the market, 
the fact that no definite standards of quality have existed in the past has 
made it possible for this low quality beef, along with beef from poorly-bred 
and improperly-fed animals, to masquerade as first-class beef and com- 
mand a price entirely out of proportion to its real value. This has, in turn, 
tended to depress the price obtainable for high quality beef, with the 
result that there has not been proper inducement for the production of the 
class of beef for which many consumers have vainly sought, or have been 
able to obtain only occasionally. 

With a view to making it possible for the consumer to identify quality 
and, through the emphasis thus placed on quality, to provide an incentive 
for the production of better beef cattle, the Dominion Department of 
Agriculture has recently adopted a system of branding the two top qualities 
of beef. These grade brands are applied in ribbon-like marks the full 
length of the carcass, so that when the beef is cut up a section of the brand 
appears on each important cut. Establishments are permitted to use their 
trade brands, but the "Choice" Grade is always branded in red, and the 
"Good" Grade is always branded in blue. The "Choice" is a special grade, 
and represents the product of particularly well-bred and highly-finished 
cattle. As it costs more to produce and is available in somewhat limited 
quantity, it naturally commands a higher price. The "Good" Grade is 
the standard grade, and includes only beef that can be safely recommended 
as of first-class eating quality. The quality of beef which qualifies for this 
grade is superior to much of the beef ordinarily sold as the best obtainable. 

Therefore, to be sure of receiving the quality of beef you are paying 
for, see that the official brand mark appears upon each cut that you pur- 
chase. And if you are purchasing by grade it is not necessary to look for 
the "Canada Approved" stamp in addition to the official brand, as only 
beef which has passed federal health inspection is eligible for branding. 
Therefore, the grade brands indicate both health and quality. 

The colourings used in these brands are prepared by the Department, 
and carry the Department's assurance of harmlessness. The dealer, 
therefore, should not be asked to have the brand marks cut off. On the 
contrary, it is in the consumer's interest to insist upon the brand marks 
appearing upon each cut of beef purchased. They should be regarded as 
an official guarantee of health and quality. 

For those who may be unable to purchase by grade, or who may 
desire to increase their knowledge of what constitutes good beef, it may be 
said that: The depth of the lean and the thickness of the fat are general 
indications of the quality of beef. Good beef should be uniform in colour, 


Page Nine 


the cut surface being a bright, rich red. The flesh should be velvety 
firm yet : springy or elastic to the touch. It should be well mottled or 
marbled with white fat, and covered by a good layer of flaky, creamy- 
white fat. The inside fat, such as the suet, should be brittle or crumbly 
and creamy-white in colour. The bones should be soft and porous and 
pinkish to red colour. Hard, flinty, white bones are an indication of age 
Exposure to the air may darken beef on the outside without detracting 
from its eating qualities. 

To be good, beef must carry a reasonable amount of fat. Contrary 
to the opinion of many, excessively lean beef represents neither food value 
flavour nor economy: — ' 

1. Fat from beef is itself a desirable and necessary article of food, as 
it supplies economically the heat, energy and many of the vitamines re- 
quired by the human body, and also aids in the process of digestion Pure 
fat furnishes over twice as much heat and energy as an equal weight of 
sugar starch or protein. A reasonable amount of fat beef, therefore 
should be ea t en in order to supplement the protein and minerals in the 
lean and help to balance the diet. 

2 Quality in beef cannot exist without a reasonable amount of fat 
Lean beef is the product of animals which have not been properly fed and 
finished. Consequently, it is lacking in tenderness, juiciness and flavour. 

3 Cooking of beef is very definitely affected by the amount of fat it 
includes. The outside layer of fat prevents loss of the valuable juices and 
extractives which give beef its flavour, and the fat which is mixed through 
the lean blends with it in the process of cooking and adds to its juiciness 
and flavour, as well as increasing its nourishment. 

It should not, however, be assumed that, because beef must be fat in 
order to be good, all fat beef is good beef. An old, tough cow may carry 
a considerable amount of fat, but neither the fat nor the lean from such 
an animal possesses the desired quality. The fat on beef from an animal 
of this kind can usually be distinguished by its softness and high colour. 

A certain knowledge of the names and appearance of the different 
cuts is an advantage in selecting beef. The Department has issued a chart 
showing ,n natural colours the various retail and wholesale cuts, and 
indicating the section of the animal from which each cut is obtained This 
chart, having been prepared from actual photographs, shows the relative 
proportion of lean to fat in the different cuts from well-finished beef and 
thus assists in deciding the kind and size of cut to order. Copies of this 
chart may be obtained free of charge from the Live Stock Branch Ottawa 


Pate Tm 


Higher-priced Cuts 

Porterhouse | 

CERTAIN cuts of beef are 
commonly referred to as the 
"higher-priced" or "better" cuts. 
They come from the parts of the 
animal which receive the least 
amount of exercise and are there- 
fore naturally more tender than 
| cuts from the parts which are well 
exercised. On account of their 
tenderness, fine flavour and ease 
of preparing and cooking, and the 
fact they comprise only about 
twenty-five per cent of the whole beef animal, they are in greatest demand 
and consequently command a higher price than the less popular cuts which 
make up the other seventy-five per cent. As the dealer has to dispose of 
these cheaper cuts in some manner in order to break even on the whole 
animal, it naturally follows that the popular cuts are going to be consider- 
ably higher in price than their actual food value warrants. Therefore 
when one is buying porterhouse or sirloin steak he must remember that 
part of the price he is paying is for attractiveness, popularity and ease of 
preparation, but he must not think that he is getting a more nourishing 
piece of meat. It is necessary, therefore, in order to equalize supply and 
demand that all the cuts of the animal be utilized. A more general use of 
the various cheaper cuts will net only help in balancing the meat bill but 
will greatly assist in adding variety to the menu, as a greater variety of beef 
dishes can be served at less cost, or served mere frequently at the same cost. 

. Classification of Higher-priced cuts 




Prime ribs 




Manner of cooking 


Roasts — rolled or standing 


"Fillet Mignon" 

Broiling, panbroiling, roasting 

Broiling, panbroiling, roasting 

Broiling, panbroiling, roasting 

Broiling, panbroiling, roasting, 


Page Eleven 


Lower-priced Cuts 

Chuck roast 

, S already intimated, on ac- 
count of their being less 
tender and requiring more time 
to prepare and cook, certain 
cuts of beef are less popular 
than others. These cuts are 
fully as nourishing and digest- 
ible as the others, and the very 
exercise that is responsible for 
their coarser fibre and difference 
in texture has developed large 
amounts of extractives which 
give them their fine flavour. It 
will be seen, therefore, that the lower price at which these cuts sell is not an 
indication of inferior flavour, food value or digestibility, and that if properly 
cooked they furnish a very palatable, nutritious and economical dish. It 
is also a fact that the less popular cuts from branded beef are likely to 
be superior to the popular cuts from an animal that is not of brandable 

The problem, then, is to cook these cheaper cuts so as to make them 
tender and at the same time retain, or enhance, their natural flavours. 
This is accomplished by cooking in such a way that the flavours are re- 
tained either in the meat itself or in the gravy. While the cooking of these 
cuts requires that an earlier start be made in order to provide for the longer 
period which is necessary, it does not mean that an appreciably greater 
amount of time has to be devoted to the preparation of the dinner. As a 
matter of fact, many stews, braised or casserole dishes require the expendi- 
ture of actually less time in their preparation and cooking, for once started 
they need much less attention and supervision than the tender cuts which 
are cooked at a high temperature. It also consumes much less fuel to keep 
a casserole dish cooking at a temperature of 175° F., or to keep a stew 
simmering for three hours, than it does to cook a roast at a temperature of, 
say, 375° F., or to broil a steak. Another advantage in favour of meat 
dishes which are cooked by the long, slow method is that their attractive- 
ness and palatability is not seriously impaired should they have to stand a 
while, or cook a little longer, before being served; whereas steaks, and to 
a great degree roasts, should be served almost immediately they are cooked. 


Paf Twit* 


A knowledge, therefore, of the nature and characteristics of the 
cheaper cuts and the particular method best suited to their preparation 
and cooking will permit the practice of economy in serving beef, without 
detracting from the attractiveness or nutritive value of the bill of fare. 

Classification of Lower-priced cuts 



Manner of cooking 



Pot roasting, braising, stewing 



Panfrying, braising, Hamburger, 
pot roasting 



Panfrying, braising, stewing 


Pot roasts 

Panfrying, roasting, braising 


Short ribs or rib ends 

Roasting, braising 
Stewing, braising, soup 


Brisket or point 

Boiling, stewing, braising, pot 


Soup bone 

Soup, stewing, Hamburger, jellied 


Soup bone 

Soup, braising, stew 



Stews, soup, braising, mincemeat 


Pag* Thirttn 


Care of Beef 

A s 

Wing or Club steak 

L S soon as the beef arrives at 
the home, remove wrappings 
and check the weight on kitchen 
scales. Wipe meat with a cloth 
dampened in vinegar in order to 
remove any dust or other foreign 
material. Breaking the "sealing" 
of the fat — that is, the outside 
surface — should be avoided. Do 
not wash with water unless abso- 
lutely necessary, as some of the 
juices are lost in that way. 

If beef is not to be cooked immediately it should be placed on porce- 
lain, enamelware (provided it has no cracks), crockery or aluminum dish 
and put in a cool place. Do not place directly on ice. Iron or tin dishes 
should never be used fcr meat under any circumstances. Beef which is 
to be kept for several hours before cooking should be covered. If no cold 
place is available, do not attempt to keep beef for any length of time with- 
out cocking or partially cooking it. 

If beef is to be kept until the following day before cooking, it is a wise 
precaution, particularly if the refrigeration is not of the best, to adopt the 
treatment known as "marinating". The marinade is prepared by blending 
vinegar or lemon juice with olive, corn or other vegetable oil in the pro- 
portions of one part vinegar to two or three parts oil. (Note. — In prepar- 
ing a marinade for the primary purpose of softening the fibres and making 
the meat tender, the proportions of vinegar and oil are reversed.) A little 
salt and pepper and a dash of mustard may be added if desired. The meat 
is placed in a covered earthenware dish (metal should never be used, on 
account of acid), and thoroughly coated on all sides with this mixture. A 
pastry brush is handy for distributing the marinade and rubbing it well 
into the crevices. 

This process not only protects the meat from the air and helps to 
preserve it, but the acid makes it more tender and the oil enriches it and 
improves the flavour. Cheap cuts are in this way rendered more palatable, 
while the good cuts are made even better. 


Page Fourteen 




Rolled rib roast 

^HE flavour and tenderness of meat, as well 
as the amount of nourishment derived 
from it, depends to a great extent upon the 
manner in which it is cooked. The tenderest and 
juiciest cuts may be rendered tough, dry and 
flavourless by improper cooking, whereas many 
of the tougher cuts, which, incidentally, contain 
equal nourishment and are fuller flavoured, may 
be rendered quite tender and attractive if 
cooked in the right way. 

Objects. Meat is cooked with the object 

(1) Making it tender by softening and break- 
ing down the cell walls and connective tissue. 

(2) Developing the flavour. 

(3) Destroying any germ life or bacteria which 
may be present. 

Purpose. Meat is cooked for two purposes: either for the meat itself, 
or to extract the juices which it contains, as in the making of soups. In 
stews, braised, or casserole dishes where both meat and liquid are to be 
served together, these two methods are combined. 

Principles. The guiding principles in cooking meat should be to 
supply just sufficient heat to accomplish the aforementioned objects, 
without interfering with the composition of the meat itself. Tough meat 
and poor soup are the result of too rapid cooking. The tender cuts may 
be cooked at a much higher temperature than the tougher pieces. Accord- 
ingly, the method to be employed depends upon the fibre of the meat, 
which, in turn, varies with the different cuts. In choosing meat, therefore, 
consideration should be taken of the manner in which it is to be cooked, 
the use to which it is to be put, and the time which is to be devoted to its 

The effect of intense dry heat is quite different from that of moist 
heat. A very attractive flavour is developed by cooking in a dry heat at a 
much higher temperature than the boiling point of water. This explains 
why a pot roast is richer than a stew, and indicates how the flavour of 
stewed or boiled meat may be improved by first crisping or browning the 


Page Fifteen 


Moist heat is more effective for softening the tissues and making the 
meat tender and palatable. Meat is softened and made tender in other 
ways, such as (a) grinding or chopping, to separate the fibres; (b) pounding 
to break and crush the fibres; (c) the use of acids, such as lemon juice and 
vinegar; (d) freezing, or hanging — also known as aging or ripening — in a 
low temperature. This softens the meat through the chemical action of 
acids which develop in the meat itself. This aging, or hanging, is absolutely 
necessary to the proper ripening of meat, and no responsible dealer will sell 
meat which has been insufficiently hung or matured. But no matter what 
mechanical or chemical treatment may be adopted with a view to improv- 
ing the tenderness of the meat, long slow cooking is the most reliable means 
of accomplishing this end. 


Broiling is unsurpassed as a method of cooking tender steaks, the 
flavour, delicacy and digestibility being superior to steak cooked in any 
other way. Minced or Hamburg steak may also be broiled with equal satis- 
faction. A reasonably thick steak is far better eating than a thin one, so 
that for a small family it is better to buy a fair-sized steak and broil parts 
of it at different times, rather than to choose a thin one. 

In broiling, the meat is cooked by exposure to direct heat of hot coals, 
flame, or red-hot electrical heating units. The edges of the meat may be 
cut in several places to prevent curling as it contracts from the heat. The 
meat is placed on a hot broiler which has been rubbed with a small piece of 
fat, and quickly seared on one side and then on the other, keeping it about 
one inch from the flame. When seared on both sides, the flame is lowered, 
or the distance from the heat increased, and the meat completely cooked 
on one side before being turned. It is ready to turn when the side away 
from the heat has a raised appearance and little jets of steam escape. 
Turning the steak during cooking dries it out more and impairs the flavour. 
When cooked, serve on hot platter with a little butter, pepper and salt. 

The cuts most suitable for broiling or pan broiling come from the loin. 
They are the tenderloin, or fillet, and the various loin cuts known as club, 
wing, T-bone, porterhouse, sirloin, etc. Round steak is sometimes broiled, 
but as certain of the muscles in the round are comparatively tough, this 
cut, unless minced, is better adapted to cooking by other methods. 

The following table will give the approximate time required to broil 
or pan broil steaks rare to medium. The exact time required depends on 
the thickness of the steak, the amount of heat employed, and the degree of 
cooking desired. It is difficult to broil steak well-done without drying and 


Page Sixteen 


hardening the outside, but if more thorough cooking is desired the cooking 
may be completed in the oven. 

Approximate Time Required jor Broiling and Pan Broiling 

For steaks 1 inch thick, rare to medium. . . 8 to 10 minutes 
" 1§ inches thick, " ... 10 to 15 " 

" 2 " " ...18 to 25 " 

Pan Broiling 

In pan broiling the meat is cooked in a very hot pan or skillet without 
any fat, or with only a mere coating of fat rubbed over the surface of the 
pan. If the pan is hot enough when the meat is put in, it will not stick. 
Any surplus fat which collects in the pan during cooking should be poured 
off. When steak is seared on one side, turn and sear the other; then reduce 
heat and cook till done. Never pierce steak with knife or fork when cook- 
ing, as this permits the juices to escape. The time required for pan broil- 
ing is the same as for broiling. 

Pan Frying 

Pan frying is what is commonly referred to as frying, but is actually 
sauteing. The beef is cooked in a frying pan, or skillet, a small amount of 
fat being used. This method is adopted in the cooking of cuts which are 
deficient in fat, or which require longer cooking than is practicable in 
broiling. It is also the method used for cooking croquettes, Hamburger, 
hash, etc. If the pan is covered, this method is practically identical with 
braising, as the beef is then, to some extent, cooked in moist heat. 


Strictly speaking, frying means cooking food immersed in hot fat, 
although the term is commonly used when sauteing or pan frying is meant. 
It is not adapted to the cooking of beef, with the exception of such forms 
as croquettes, etc. In fact, the less frying or the frying pan is resorted to 
in the cooking of meat, the more wholesome will be the finished product. 
The heat of the frying pan is usually over 400° F. The hot fat penetrates 
the meat, drives off the juices, dries and hardens the tissues, and breaks 
down and destroys the food elements, making it liable to cause digestive 
troubles. This is particularly true if the fat is permitted to scorch or be- 
come heated beyond a certain point. When this takes place, it decomposes 
into fatty acids and glycerine, and from glycerine becomes acrolein — a 
substance which is irritating to the mucous membrance. This is why the 
smoke and vapour from overheated fats is so offensive to eyes, nose and 


Page Seventeen 



The term "roasting" as originally applied to the cooking of meat meant 
cooking in front of, or over, an open fire, a spit or Dutch oven frequently 
being the apparatus used for the purpose. This method is still followed 
in many European and Asiatic countries and in some sections of the 
American continents where modern stoves and ranges are not in universal 

In modern cooking terminology, roasting is understood to mean cook- 
ing in an oven in dry heat. Actually, the meat is baked, although this 
term is seldom used in reference to meat. The meat may be cooked in an 
open pan or in a covered one, both methods being satisfactory and each 
having its preference with different cocks. In the case of a fairly large 
roast, or one which has a good proportion of fat, the open pan method will 
give the best results. On the other hand, a small or lean rcast may shrink 
less and be cooked to better advantage in a covered pan. An excessively 
lean roast should have a slice of suet placed on top, or it may be larded 
with either beef or pork fat. If beef is roasted with the fat side up, basting 
is not required with either an open or a covered pan. 

The roast may be placed in a very hot oven, 525° to 550° F., until the 
surface is seared, and then cooked until done at a temperature of 300° to 
400° F. ; or the oven may be kept at the lower temperature all through the 
cooking period. Contrary to the general opinion, the initial searing of beef 
in roasting, with a view to preventing escape of juices and more volatile 
constituents, is not important. As a matter of fact, recent scientific 
experiments in the cooking of meat have shown that there is very little 
difference in either results or appearance between roasts which have been 
at first seared and those which have been cooked at a moderate temperature 
throughout. It has been found that searing decreases the total time 
required for cooking but increases the losses in cooking. Roasts which are 
first seared brown better than those cooked at an even temperature from 
the start. On the other hand, roasts cooked at the lower temperature 
throughout are sufficiently brown to be attractive and are more evenly 
cooked; they are less likely to be cooked too much on the outside and 
extremely rare in the centre. These experiments have therefore shown 
that while a slightly longer period is necessary when cooking at a lower 
temperature than was formerly thought advisable, the lower temperature 
produces a more evenly cooked roast with considerably less shrinkage and 
loss of both fat and the volatile elements. 

A roast will brown more readily if sufficient flour is rubbed into the 
surface to make it dry. This also assists in preventing the escape of the 


Page Eighteen 


The question of rubbing salt into the surface of meat before roasting 
is a debatable one. Salt certainly draws out the juices. The advocates 
of the use of salt, however, contend that the loss of juices is more than 
compensated for by the improved flavour the salt gives the roast. 

The principles to be followed in cooking the various kinds of roasts 
are the same: Wipe meat with damp cloth, trim off ragged or unsightly 
bits, skewer or tie if necessary, and place, fat side up, on wire rack in 
roasting pan, keeping meat at least one inch from bottom of pan. When 
cocked, remove to hot platter, drain off surplus fat, and add some boiling 
water to soften and mix with the juices in the pan. The resultant gravy 
may be served "au jus" or thickened with flour in the proportion of 1§ 
tablespoons of flour to each cup of liquid. 

A medium-sized roast of sirloin, prime rib, or similar cut will require 
approximately fifteen to twenty-five minutes per pound; chuck, round 
shoulder, or brisket thirty to forty minutes per pound, dependent upon the 
size and shape of roast and degree of cooking required. A small, thin roast 
requires less cooking in proportion and should be cooked in a relatively 
higher temperature than a blocky, compact one of the same weight. A 
fairly large roast cooks to much better advantage than a small one, as 
there is not so much shrinkage or drying out, and the juices and flavour 
are therefore better retained. Cocking with the bone in improves the 
flavour. Rolled roasts are more compact, but purchasing roasts already 
rolled makes it difficult for the purchaser to definitely identify the cut and 
gives unscrupulous dealers the opportunity to include in the roll meat of 
an inferior cut or grade. 

The cuts ordinarily used for oven roasting are the naturally tender 
and juicy ones from the loin, rump, rib and shoulder. This takes in the 
meat along the back. The inside muscles of the chuck and round are also 
used in this manner. 

Three muscles make up the round: inside, outside, and "eye", or 
"kernel". The inside, or top, round muscle is more tender than the eye or 
the bottom cut, and is therefore the part of the round most suitable for 

The rump cut is situated between the round and the loin. As this is 
a fairly large cut it is usually divided into what is known as the square 
rump roast and the round rump roast. The meat on the rump is fine- 
grained, and from a choice animal is reasonably tender, juicy and good 

From the loin we get the porterhouse and sirloin cuts. The roasts 
from this section are commonly known as wing, T-Bone, porterhouse, and 


4 Page Nineteen 


sirloin. These are considered the choicest cuts in the whole animal and 
therefore command the highest price. 

From the front quarter we get the various rib roasts. With the rib 
in, these are known as standing rib roasts; boned and rolled, they are 
commonly referred to as prime rib roasts. These cuts are invariably pre- 
pared by roasting. 

Next to the rib roasts are the various shoulder roasts, such as chuck, 
chuck rib, blade, round shoulder, and short rib. The meat next to the prime 
rib on the chuck side below the blade is a continuation of the rib muscle 
and is used for roasts and steaks when cut in this manner. The other 
chuck and shoulder cuts, being not quite so tender, are better adapted to 
longer and slower methods of cooking, such as pot roasting and braising. 

Pot Roasting 

In pot roasting the beef is seared on top of the stove and then cooked in 
a covered dish, either on top of the stove or in the oven. A heavy, cast 
iron or aluminum utensil is preferable for pot roasting as it retains the 
heat and the beef is not so liable to scorch. The beef is first seared in a 
little fat, and just enough hot water added to keep it from burning. It is 
then cooked at a temperature of about 225° F., which is lower than the 
temperature used for ordinary roasting, and slightly higher than used for 
braising. Pot roasting is really a form of braising applied to a large piece 
of meat. 


Braising is a combination of stewing and baking, and is similar to pot 
roasting, the distinction being that the beef is usually cut up into small 
pieces instead of being cooked in one piece, as in pot roasting, and less 
liquid is used than in the case of a stew. The beef is first seared, as in 
pot roasting, and then cooked slowly in a covered dish, allowing about three- 
quarters of an hour to each pound. An oven temperature of about 175° F. 
is desirable. Vegetables and seasoning may be added as desired in sufficient 
time to provide for their cooking by the time the meat is done. The 
covered pans sold as roasting pans are really braising pans. Covered 
casseroles are also excellent for this purpose. 


The term "boiling" as applied to the cooking of meats is misleading 
and its literal application is largely responsible for the fact that meat 
cooked in water is not more popular. Boiling beef for the full cooking 
period hardens the albumen all the way through, and makes the meat much 
less palatable and digestible. 


Page Twenty 


Beef cooked by this method should be kept at the boiling point for the 
first few minutes only— just long enough to coagulate the albumen on the 
outside, and prevent the water from penetrating and making the meat 
dry and tasteless. For the balance of the cooking period it should be kept 
at the simmering point— about 180° F. The brisket, rump, plate and 
shoulder cuts are all used for boiling. 


In stewing, the cooking is done at what is known as the simmering 
point, which is a temperature of approximately 180° F. The meat is 
completely immersed in water, as in boiling, but in the case of a stew it is 
desired to extract some of the juices; therefore, the meat is cut into fairly 
small pieces, so as to expose more surface. Unshapely pieces and scraps 
from roasts or other cuts are frequently utilized to advantage in this 
manner. Stews may be prepared in different ways, according to the 
results desired: — 

(a) The beef may be first browned. This makes what is known as 
a brown stew, and one that possesses both rich colour and flavour. 

(b) The beef may be plunged into boiling water for a sufficient length 
of time to coagulate the surface and prevent the escape of the extractives. 
Such a stew will not possess the rich flavour of the brown stew, but vege- 
tables cooked with it will have more of the real meat flavour. 

(c) The beef may be placed in cold water and gradually brought to 
the simmering point, as in the making of soup. Like soup meat, the meat 
will be lacking in flavour, but vegetables cooked in the broth will be cor- 
respondingly richer. 

Since stews are eaten complete, it is simply a matter of choice which 
part possesses the greatest flavour. The cooking in all three methods, after 
the initial treatment as indicated, should be at a temperature just under 
the boiling point (approximately 180° F.). 

Steam or Pressure Cooking 

The devices used for this purpose are of comparatively recent develop- 
ment and consist of a heavy utensil, usually of aluminum, provided with 
safety valve, gauge, etc. They allow for a pressure of from thirty to thirty- 
five pounds, and as cooking is very rapid a saving in both time and fuel 
may be effected. Beef cooked under pressure keeps its shape better and 
does not have the dull, shrunken appearance common to boiled meat. 
Pressure cookers are used in many households for the canning of fruits and 


Page Twenty-one 


Waterless Cookers 

The waterless cooker is another device of quite recent introduction. 
It consists of a heavy aluminum kettle, with a double, insulated bottom 
which retains the heat and prevents scorching. It has a tight fitting cover 
that clamps down, and a valve to permit surplus steam to escape. As the 
meat is cooked on the bottom of this kettle, several vegetables, or even 
a dessert, may be cooked at the same time in pans which fit in the upper 
part. As the name implies, no water is required when cooking in this 
device, the juices of the meat itself providing the necessary moisture. The 
cooking is actually done in steam under slight pressure, and pot roasts or 
stewing meat cooked in this manner are made quite tender and have a 
very delicious flavour. It is also a very economical way of cooking, as only 
a minimum of heat is required. 

Fireless Cookers 

The various fireless and semi-fireless cookers are entirely suitable for 
roasting, braising and stewing. Their advantages include: fuel economy, 
time-saving (food does not require watching); retention of flavour; long 
slow cooking; and, of particular advantage in summer, the avoidance of 
overheating the kitchen. 


Page Twenty-two 



E l 


k CONOMY in cooking neces- 
sarily includes the utilization 
in some manner of all fat that is 
not consumed at the table. The 
home rendering of excess fats and 
those remaining from ccoked meats 
makes possible a very appreciable 
reduction in the bill for commercial 
shortening. The clarifying of used 
fats greatly increases their useful- 
ness, and much of the fat so treated^is superior to lard and other shorten- 
ings for many kinds of cooking. Rendered suet and the outside fat from 
roasts or steaks, as well as the fat skimmed from soups and stews, is excel- 
lent shortening for cakes and other baked articles where a slightly darker 
colour is not an objection, for crusts of meat pies, frying doughnuts, vege- 
tables, fish, etc., as well as for ordinary sauteing and frying. 

The surplus fat from each day's cooking may be tried out by cutting 
it in fairly small pieces and heating it in a double boiler until the fat has 
been softened to the point where it can be readily pressed through a fine 
wire or cheesecloth strainer. Gently pressing or mashing with a fork after 
it has become heated through facilitates the process of extraction. 

A slightly quicker method, but one which does not give as good keep- 
ing or wholesome a product, is to place the fat, together with a little water, 
in a frying pan or saucepan and cook it at a low temperature until the tissue 
is crisp and the fat clear. Care should be taken to avoid scorching or heating 
the fat to the smoking point, as high temperature changes the composition 
of fats and makes them very irritating to the digestive system. 

When fully rendered, the fat should be allowed to cool slightly and 
then strained into a dish kept convenient for the purpose. A covered lard 
pail makes a suitable receptacle, each fresh supply being added as rendered. 
If kept cool and covered, such rendered fat will remain sweet for some time. 
Fats from different kinds of meats should be kept separate. 

Fat which has become slightly tainted, or fat that has been used for 
deep frying, may be clarified and rendered sweet again by boiling it with a 
few slices of raw potato. When potato is browned, allow fat to cool slightly 
in order to give any sediment a chance to settle, and then strain. Fat 
which is no longer fit for cooking may be easily converted into soap by 


Page Twtnty-three 


using one of the commercial lyes and following the directions which come 
with it. 

Beef suet is a very wholesome form of fat, and can be utilized in 
cooking in many different ways. The best suet comes from around the 
kidneys. It is desirable, therefore, to either buy the suet in a piece and 
mince it yourself, or have the dealer mince it under your supervision. 
There is always a danger of ready -minced suet including some less desirable 
forms of fat. 

Finely-chopped suet, used in proportion of two of suet to three of 
flour, with a little baking powder added, makes most attractive and palat- 
able crusts for meat pies of various kinds. Suet used as a basis for steam 
puddings, simple or elaborate as desired, provides cheap, wholesome 
desserts especially suitable for cold weather meals. Dumplings made 
with suet are light and nourishing. Hamburg steak, when made from 
particularly lean beef, is made juicier and the flavour improved by the 
addition of a little chopped suet. Suet may also be substituted in many 
of the recipes contained in this book which call for the use of butter. 


Pmg€ Twenty-four 


Beef Soups 


Chuck steak 

^WING to the high percentage 
of water which they contain, 
the nutritive value of meat soups 
is comparatively low and is often 
much over-rated. Soups have, 
however, an important place in 
the diet as they contain a certain 
amount of protein, mineral salts, 
and extractives. Their chief value lies in the fact that the high flavour 
of the meat extractives which they contain stimulates the flow of the 
digestive juices, and thus assists the process of digestion. Hence the 
reason for serving soups at the beginning of the meal. The actual food 
value of soups therefore depends largely upon the amount of vegetables 
and other ingredients which are added to the meat stock. In addition to 
the place they fill on the bill of fare, soups provide a medium for the econ- 
omical utilization of the cheaper cuts of meat, also bones and scraps from 
roasts, steaks, etc., which would otherwise be wasted. 

As space does not permit an extended treatise on the many varieties 
of soup, it is necessary to limit this reference to some of the principles of 
making beef stock. With the exception of those soups in which milk or 
cream is used as a base, meat stock of some kind forms the base of prac- 
tically all soups. It may be served alone as "beef tea", or "beef extract", 
flavoured with vegetables, spice and herbs; or with vegetables, barley, 
etc., added. 

The chief value of meat soups, as already indicated, being in the 
extractives, the problem in cooking is to extract as much of the flavour as 
possible. This is accomplished by reversing the process where it is desired 
to retain the flavour in the meat. The meat is cut in small pieces so as to 
expose a large amount of surface. If a brown stock is desired, some of the 
meat is first browned in the frying pan. The meat is then put into cold 
water and brought slowly to a higher temperature. It is then simmered for 
from four to eight hours, depending upon the kind of meat used and the 
richness of the stock desired. The smaller the meat is cut and the longer 
it is cooked, the richer will be the broth. Bones should be cracked. For 
a rich stock, the proportion of water to each pound of meat should be 
one pint; for a light stock, one quart. The soup should be covered while 
cooking in order to prevent undue evaporation. 


Pat* Tt09nty-fio€ 


If the stock is intended for immediate use, the fat should be removed, 
as a greasy soup is exceedingly unpalatable. If, however, the stock is to 
be kept over, the solid skim of fat which forms on top should be allowed 
to remain, as it acts as a preservative. Stock sours very quickly and in 
warm weather should not be kept over twenty-four hours. In cold weather, 
it may be kept for several days. Quick cooling aids in preserving stock. 

The cheaper cuts of beef should be used in making soup, both because 
of their low cost and because they come from those parts of the animal 
which are richest in extractives. The shanks are especially valuable for 
this purpose. The proportion of two parts of lean meat to one of fat and 
bone gives the best results. If the cut consists of too much lean, some of 
it may be cut off and used for Hamburg steak or stewing. The meat from 
which soup has been made has lost much of its flavour, and is therefore 
rather tasteless. It still contains most of its nourishment, however, and 
may be used in hash, meat pies, ragouts, etc., where the flavour of vege- 
tables and seasonings compensates for the lack of meat flavour. 


Page Twenty-six 



TN selecting the following recipes, 

j&~ „ ihJ. ' JOttl^ ' -*• the endeavour has been to keep 

4I • rtBi^fc m m ' nc ^ tne requirements and 

/' \ position of the average housewife 

i ^WltfN. m»J-s & **<!&![&%**' -f^SL to whom the saving of both time 

^ . 5«S^$ eiSwflNf *«H99B and expense is an important con- 

shortribs sideration. Accordingly, while the 

importance of attractiveness and 
tastiness has not been lost sight of, the majority of the recipes presented 
are of the more practical and economical type, special consideration being 
given to cost, ease of preparation and food value. A few of the more 
elaborate and fancy dishes have been included in order to give variety 
and to provide for special occasions when something a little better than 
usual may be desired. 

Recipes based on cured meats have been largely omitted. Pickled and 
otherwise processed meats are not nearly as digestible or wholesome as 
fresh meats and should be used, if at all, sparingly and only occasionally 
for the sake of variety. 

Highly seasoned dishes have also been avoided. Seasoning is to quite 
an extent a matter of individual taste or habit, and experience soon teaches 
the amount of seasoning required. Where definite amounts of seasoning 
are given, this may be taken simply as a guide and varied according to 
taste. It should be remembered, however, that the delicious flavour of 
good beef is developed and brought out by proper cocking and that this 
individual flavour may be entirely obscured or destroyed by the excessive 
use of strong spices and sauces. 

Broiled Sirloin Steak 

Wipe steak with cloth wrung from cold water. Trim off superfluous fat. Grease 
broiler with fat, place meat on broiler and broil under or over strong heat, searing first one 
surface and then the other. When both surfaces have been seared, reduce heat and com- 
plete cooking. Steak should be cut 1} inches thick. Time for broiling, 12 to 15 minutes. 
Sprinkle with salt, pepper, and spread with Maitre d'Hotel butter. Remove to hot serving 
platter and smother with sauted mushrooms. 

Broiled Steak with Blanket of Clams 

Wipe a sirloin steak, cut 1$ inches thick, and broil 10 minutes as per directions for 
broiling. Reduce heat somewhat and continue cooking 7 minutes. Remove to metal 


Page Twenty -seoen 


platter, cover with 2% cups little neck clams, place platter on grate in oven and cook until 
clams are plumped. Spread generously with Maitre d'Hdtel butter. Garnish with finely- 
shredded French fried potatoes and sprays of parsley. 

Planked Sirloin Steak 

Have the steak cut lj inches thick. Wipe with a damp cloth. Have ready a hot' 
well-oiled broiler. Cook the steak over glowing coals or under a gas flame 10 to 12 minutes. 
Dispose steak on a hot, well buttered plank, arrange a broad frill of hot mashed potatoes 
around edge of plank, brush over lightly with slightly beaten yolks of eggs, diluted with 
milk. Set plank in hot oven to brown and reheat potato and to finish cooking steak. 
Remove from oven and fill space between steak and potato with tomatoes, stuffed with 
Creole rice. Spread steak with Maitre d'Hotel butter and garnish top with sauted mush- 

Sirloin Steak a la Hollandaise 

Prepare a Hollandaise sauce as follows: Put 4 egg yolks in the top of a double boiler, 
beat slightly, add J cup butter and \ cup cold water. Set vessel in lower part of boiler 
half filled with hot water, set over low heat and stir constantly, keeping water in lower 
part of boiler just below the boiling point. When mixture thickens to the consistency of 
boiled custard, add gradually \ teaspoonful salt, mixed with \ teaspoonful pepper and few 
grains cayenne; continue beating. Then add 2 tablespoonsful lemon juice slowly while 
still beating. Pour half of sauce onto a hot platter; over this place a thick, juicy, broiled 
sirloin steak; cover steak with remaining sauce and serve immediately. 

Sirloin Steak, Fried Bananas 

Follow directions for broiled sirloin steak. Dispose on hot serving platter and arrange 
fried bananas alternately with crisp bacon over steak. Serve at once. 

Fried Bananas. Remove skins from 6 firm bananas, cut in halves lengthwise; then 
cut in halves crosswise. Sprinkle with lemon juice and let stand J hour. Drain, and dredge 
with flour seasoned with a sprinkle of salt and paprika. Saute in melted butter; brown 
on one side, then turn and brown the other. Dust lightly with powdered sugar. 

Fillet Mignon, Maitre d'Hotel Butter 

Cut beef tenderloin in \\ inch slices, trim in circular shapes, surround with a thin 
slice of bacon, fasten with a small wooden skewer (toothpick) and broil 6 minutes in a hot, 
well-greased frying pan, turning often. Remove to hot serving platter and spread gener- 
ously with Maitre d'H6tel butter. Surround with broiled mushrooms. 

Fillet Mignons Deviled, Brown Mushroom Sauce 
Have fillets from beef tenderloin cut 1 inch thick. Pat in shape and broil 4 minutes. 
Slightly cool, spread each on both sides with German or French mustard seasoned with 
Worcestershire sauce, salt and paprika; dip in crumbs, egg, again in crumbs, and saute 
in hot butter or olive oil until a golden brown. Broil an equal number of tomatoes cut in 
halves crosswise; set \ on each fillet, and pour around a brown mushroom sauce. 

Planked Larded Fillet of Beef 

Wipe a tenderloin of beef weighing 4 pounds, trim off fat, veins, tendonous portions, 
and press in shape (use skewers if necessary). Lard the upper surface with grain of meat. 


Page Twtnty-tight 


(This may be done by the dealer at a slight additional cost.) Place on rack in dripping 
pan, sprinkle with salt, pepper, dredge with flour, and strew trimmings of fat salt pork 
in pan. Roast in a hot oven 30 minutes, basting every 10 minutes. Remove to a hissing 
hot, buttered steak plank. Surround with a border of mashed potatoes. Return to oven 
to brown potatoes. Garnish with tomatoes or green peppers filled with succotash. Place 
broiled mushrooms caps down centre of fillet. 

Pan Broiled Fillets Mignon, Sultana Sauce 

Have fillets of beef cut in slices 1J inches thick. Shape in circular forms. Broil ten 
minutes in a hissing hot, well-buttered iron frying pan, turning every ten seconds for two 
minutes that the surface may be well seared. Turn occasionally afterwards. When half 
done, season with salt and pepper; reduce heat and finish cooking. Dispose on hot metal 
serving platter, spread with soft butter and pour around Sultana sauce. 

Sultana Sauce. Cook 1 finely-chopped onion in 2 tablespoonsful butter five minutes. 
Add 1 red and 1 green pepper, 1 small clove of garlic, each finely chopped, and 1 cup thick 
tomato puree. Simmer slowly fifteen minutes; then season with \ tablespoonful Wor- 
cestershire sauce, \ teaspoonful celery salt, 2 drops Tabasco sauce and salt to season. 

Round Steak Cutlets 

Wipe a piece of meat weighing 2 to 3 pounds, cut from the round with the marrow 
bone in it. Separate in pieces for serving. Lay pieces on meat board, dredge heavily with 
flour and with the edge of a saucer pound the flour into steak, turning meat at all angles 
while pounding. Turn pieces over and repeat process until J cup of flour has been used. 
In this way the long fibre of this cut of meat is completely broken up and the flour has 
absorbed the juices, so that nothing has been lost by pounding the steak. Sprinkle both 
sides with salt and pepper. Melt the marrow from bone and some of the fat trimmings 
in a hissing hot iron frying pan, arrange cutlets of meat in pan, turning often. When well 
seared on both sides reduce heat, cover and cook 15 minutes. Remove to hot serving 
platter, spread with soft butter. Strain fat in pan and use with brown stock for making 
gravy to pour around cutlets. 

Round Steak en Casserole 

Trim off fat, remove bone from round steak cut 1 inch thick. Cut in uniform pieces 
for serving. Pound each piece on both sides with the edge of a saucer. Sprinkle with salt, 
pepper and dredge with flour. Brown richly on both sides in a hissing hot, well-greased 
frying pan. Remove to hot casserole, add brown stock to cover. To the fat in pan add 2 
tablespoonsful butter; in this saut£ 2 cups sliced onions, previously parboiled 2 minutes. 
Cover steak in casserole with prepared onions, add 1 cup of sliced new carrots, season with 
salt and pepper, cover and cook slowly in oven until vegetables are tender. Serve from 
casserole with baked potatoes. 

Round Steak in Individual Casseroles 

Pound round steak (cut \ inch thick) with the edge of a saucer, while dredging lightly 
with flour on both sides; then cut in 3 inch squares, sprinkle with salt and pepper. Melt 
some of the fat in frying pan, add steaks, sear quickly and richly on both sides. Remove 
to hot casseroles, cover with beef broth or hot water, cover and cook slowly 2 hours. Saute 
1 small sliced onion for each portion, } green pepper, shredded in 2 tablespoonsful butter, 


Page Twcnty-nln* 


strew over steaks. Over these lay 1 small carrot, cut lengthwise in quarters, 1 small turnip 
pared, quartered and parboiled, 6 potato balls, parboiled and browned in fat u, frying pan' 
Sprinkle with salt and pepper. Cook until vegetables are soft. Serve in casseroles. 

Round Steak, Vienna Style 

Remove fat, gristle, bone, etc., from round or shoulder steak, pass through meat 
chopper twice. There should be 2 cups. Add * cup soft bread crumbs, season with salt 
pepper, paprika and parsley. Add 2 tablespoonsful finely chopped bacon. With the 
hands mix thoroughly, adding 2 eggs, 1 at a time, while mixing. Shape in oval cutlets 
dredge them with flour, dip in egg and crumbs, fry a golden brown in deep, hot fat Serve 
around a mound of mashed potatoes and pour over Spanish sauce. 

Round Steak, Western Style 

Cut steak from the top of round in uniform pieces for serving. Score the surface well 
with a sharp knife in opposite directions; turn and score the other side. Plunge in cold 
water and roll in flour, rubbing or pounding flour well into meat. Melt suet and fat trim- 
mings in iron frying pan, adding more fat, or dripping, if necessary. There should be 
sufficient fat to keep the flour from burning. When fat begins to smoke, place meat in 
pan, slightly reduce heat, and brown meat on one side and then on the other. When cooked 
sprinkle with salt and pepper and place on hot platter. 

For gravy, add 1 tablespoonful flour to fat in pan and brown well; add 2 cups water 
in which potatoes have been boiled and 1 cup of milk. Boil, stirring constantly until 
gravy has thickened, and pour over steak. 

Chuck Steak with Onions 

Place 5 or 6 medium-sized onions in shallow sauce-pan; cover and cook over a slow 
fire for 15 or 20 minutes till tender. Use no water or fat as the onions contain sufficient 
moisture. Heat a frying pan smoking hot, and brown about 2 pounds chuck steak quickly 
on both sides; reduce the heat and turn the meat frequently until it is cooked through 
Season both steak and onions, and serve the meat on a platter surrounded by the onions 
Add butter if desired. 

Swiss Steak 
Pound as much flour as possible into round or flank steak with edge of plate or back of 
cleaver; brown steak in small quantity of fat in hot skillet, add some canned tomatoes 
chopped onion, pepper and salt and sufficient hot water to cover. Cover dish and simmer 
until tender-about two hours. Add more water if necessary during cooking, and if gravy 
is too thin thicken with flour before serving. 

Swiss Steak No. 2 
Select about 2\ pounds of round steak cut about 2 inches thick. Sprinkle the steak 
with 4 cup of flour, J teaspoonful of salt and \ teaspoonful of pepper. Pound this into the 
meat with a meat hammer or potato masher. Turn the meat and do the same to the other 
side. Place two or three strips of bacon in the bottom of a baking dish or casserole Place 
the meat over the bacon, and add J cup of water or stock to which has been added 1 bay 
leaf, 1 clove and \ teaspoonful of celery salt. Cover the dish and cook in a moderate 
oven for one and a half or two hours. If necessary, add more water during the baking 
There should be sufficient liquid left at end of cooking to nicely moisten the steak and 
provide enough gravy. 


- » 

Page Thirty "~~ ""^^ " 


Poor Man's Beef Steak 
Cut steak from the top of the round in uniform pieces for serving; score the surface 
well with a sharp knife in opposite directions; turn and score the other side; sprinkle 
with salt, pepper and diedge with flour. Try out some of the fat trimmings in an iron 
frying pan. When smoking hot, lay the pieces of meat in pan and sear the surface quickly 
over, turn and sear the other side. When richly browned, reduce the heat and cover with 
beef stock or boiling water, cover closely and let simmer until meat is tender. Remove 
meat from pan to hot platter and thicken the liquor with flour diluted with cold water; 
add more seasoning, if necessary, and strain over the meat. Serve with baked potatoes. 
By this method this cut of steak is rendered tender and very palatable. 


This popular restaurant dish is equally suitable to the home as it is 
so easily prepared and cooked, so nourishing and satisfying, and can be 
served in such a variety of ways. The round and chuck cuts furnish the 
highest grades of Hamburger, but the lean from almost any cut can be 
used, the grinding making it tender and attractive. If the coarser cuts 
such as shank are used it is advisable to run them through the chopper 
twice in order to break up the connective tissue. Excessively lean cuts will 
be juicier if a little suet is ground with them, but as broiled steak has to be 
cooked at a very high temperature it is more digestible and has a more 
delicate flavour if the proportion of fat is kept down to the minimum. If 
the Hamburger is to be cooked by some slower method than broiling there 
is no objection to the inclusion of as much fat as may be desired. 

In broiling Hamburger it is even more important to sear the surface 
as the grinding of it presents more cut surface for the escape of juices. 
Care should, however, be taken to avoid cooking so much as to harden the 
albumen. It is therefore advisable to make the cakes not over one inch 
thick for broiling so that they may cook more readily. 

The raw, minced meat may be formed into cakes with the hands and 
cooked with nothing else added. Seasoning should be added when cook- 
ing is completed, or the steak may be mixed before cooking with a little 
onion, celery or parsley, or moistened with gravy, stock, tomato or other 
vegetable juices, or with milk. If a moist Hamburger is desired, a little 
beaten egg, or some mashed potatoes may be added. Moistened bread 
crumbs offer another suitable addition for the sake of variety. 

After being formed, the cakes may be dredged in flour or dipped in 
beaten egg and then in crumbs and sauted in a little fat or simmered in 
stock or gravy for twenty or thirty minutes. 

Hamburg Steak, Plain 

Remove outer skin, fibrous membrane and most of fat from round and put through 
meat grinder. Form into one large cake not over one inch thick and broil on well-greased 


Page Thirty-one 

ESSiT brOU ^ VEry h0t Pan> ^ "° fat " S — • ** with butter and serve 
Hamburg Steak with Onions 

s- s^^r^^^T? r?,n chopper twice - season - 

inch thick. Pan-broil in a well-greased hi J V ? * *"'' ShapC in ° Val steaks * 
then turn and sear the other s^" R ^ve to ho^ ^ K"? '^ &ar °" °" e side 
once while baking. Spread with soft butter hI f^ 8 t0 10 minUtes - Tu ™ 

cover each steak with a blanket ^^S^^X^^ "^ — "* 

Hamburg Steak a la Tartare 

i i^^^t^^si^ri- Pass through — ch — -* 

yellow 1 chopped green pepper 2^7^^^"^ "^ ^^ '° * **»* 
meat. Season with salt, mix thorougl lv ^ h " Vegetables «" soft add to 

- P- bro, Remove to serving^Srtd ^ el^h SSSf * ** 

Hamburg Steak with Mushrooms 

side. Arrange on hot plank or co PDer D . a tt ? ££ "^^ 3 " d Sear on the °ther 

Maitre d'Hotel butter and spLTwitf salT aTd "^ * ^ Spread with 

rooms and strips of pimentoes d PCPPer - Garnish with sauted mush- 

Planked Hamburger 

« s SX^^sx^?2^ ,,c,, : r d> chuck - *— ■ - 

with sufficient beaten egg and mi , b Tn . Wor «stersh,re or similar sauce, together 
milk). A few bread or cracker crumbs end to"? T *" (pr0p ° rti °"" * «« to" cup 
if desired. Form steak mixture X^cS^^t St!*." ^ "^ be added 
utes in hot frying pan . Turn once during ccSdT "w" ."k C °° k ^ fiftee " mi "" 

■emove steak carefully to hot, greased plank Pa", ^ t ^ ■"' Y br0Wned 0n both sid « 
**h cheese, and smal! boiled cLroTJZj' rte ^ n ! j T ° f ^ t0mat0CS s P rinkIed 
potatoes seasoned with salt, pepper and Wteff'H , ^ ^ * b ° rder of mashed 

of steak and brown potatoes ' d P ' aC£ m hot oven to complete cooking 

Vienna Steaks 

** ssrs £ sws: iss r iea v aw ' — — - -• 

paprika and celery salt and * teaspconfuln! 1 " .TfT™ SaH ' * teas P°°"ful each 
few gratings of onion. Add the slXw L , "L * tables P°onful lemon juice and a 
hours. Shape into small cutlets o speaks a ^ ' ****' "** WeU ' let sta " d -vera, 

quickly on one side, turn and sear the otht TolT & ^^^ hot ^ng pan; sear 
g enerous,y with Maitre d>Hote, butter. Serve ^SS^^ ^SSj^ 


Page Thirty-two 


Steak Rolls 

Season minced round, chuck or shoulder steak, adding a small amount of fine bread 
crumbs. Form into rolls about the size of small sausages, and wrap with pastry rolled 
fairly thick and cut into four inch squares, moistening the edges and pressing well together. 
Bake for three-quarters of an hour in moderate oven, and serve with tomato sauce. 

Flank Steak en Casserole 

Coat flank steak with a paste made in proportion of J teaspoonful mustard to 3 table- 
spoonsful vinegar. Place steak in baking dish and cover with thinly sliced onion; add 
small quantity of hot water. Cover and bake in moderate oven for one and one-half hours. 

Pan Broiled Flank Steak 

Trim a flank steak and wipe with a piece of cheese cloth wrung from cold water. 
Score diagonally in opposite directions on both sides with a sharp knife; with some of the 
fat trimmings thoroughly grease a hissing-hot frying pan; place steak in pan and turn 
every 10 seconds for the first 3 minutes of cooking to sear the surface well over, after which 
reduce heat and turn occasionally until richly browned on both sides. Remove to hot 
serving platter, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and spread generously with Maitre d'H6tel 

Flank Steak, Stuffed 

Wipe flank steak with cloth dampened in vinegar, and season with salt and pepper. 
Spread steak with poultry, or other, dressing, roll up and tie. Season, dredge with flour 
and brown meat quickly on all sides. Cook in covered dish in moderate oven for about 
two hours. 

Peeled potatoes, carrots or other vegetables may be added if desired during the cook- 

Baked Stuffed Flank 

Slit flank steak to form pocket, or if the steak is thin, fold one half over the other, and 
fill with poultry, or other, dressing. Tie with strips of cotton. Brush with drippings or 
melted butter, and bake in covered roaster for 1 hour, or in open pan for lj hours. If 
cooked in open pan, baste several times during cooking. A few slices of breakfast bacon 
may be placed on top of meat 10 minutes before serving. 

Stuffed Steak in Fireless Cooker 

Cut pocket in 2 pounds of flank steak, and fill with oyster, or other, stuffing. Roll, 
tie, season, and place in kettle of cooker with two radiators heated to 450° F. Allow 2 
hours for cooking. When done, make gravy of juice in bottom of pan. 

Other cuts, such as round, plate, brisket and chuck, may be cooked in same manner. 

Pressed Beef Flank 

Wipe meat, remove superfluous fat and roll flank of beef, put in kettle and cover 
with boiling water. Add 1 tablespoonful salt, $ tablespoonful peppercorns, a bit of bay 
leaf, $ dozen cloves and 3 or 4 bones. Cook slowly until meat is in shreds. There should 
be very little liquor in the kettle when the meat is done. Arrange shreds of meat in a 
granite, brick-shaped bread pan, pour over liquid, cover with a heavy weight; when cold 
and jellied, cut in thin slices and serve with whipped cream, horseradish sauce, or mustard 


Page Thirty -thrte 


Pot Roast 

the f P , Ut H he r eat ( t°^ der ' ChUCk ' ° r rUmp) in a covered iron ke "le or a frying pan with 

Season f l °T " " "" CriSPed ' ^ ^ ^ the ° th " sides thoroughly. 

Season Wlth salt pepper, and a little onion (or garlic if preferred). An onion with two or 

rooted 1 '" * may ^ br ° Wned Hghtly With the meat - The meat * h °»' d then be 

cooked m the same utens.l, tightly covered, or in the kettle from a fireless cooker Let 
.t s.mmer unt.l quite tender, turning it once during the cooking. No water is needed, 
aUhough some cooks prefer to use a little water. The tight cover will keep in all the mois- 
ture. Allow about an hour to a pound for cooking. Make a gravy of the brown fat using 

a n pot U roa a t mOUnt ^ "* ^ * "^"^ C °° ker " " * SP ^" did Utensil f ° r ^3 

Pot Roast with Vegetables 

and ^ t^ ^c P C ' 0th a 3 ° r 4 P ° Und r ° aSt fr ° m ChuCk ° r rum P' skew " °r tie into shape 
and roH m flour. Sear meat on all sides in a little fat, and place in heavy kettle or braising 

have sT^xTI mCa ! \, CUP "^ SHCed Carr ° tS ' ° ni0nS ' tUrnips ' and di « d celery, which 
have been bo,.ed m salted water until soft and rubbed through a coarse strainer or colander, 
and 3 tablespoonsful or bacon fat. Season to taste, cover tightly and cook in 

luffiXT' °V ,mmer ' k" ab ° Ut 4 h ° UrS - ^ HqUid " Whkh vegetableslere boiledTs not 
sufficient, water may be added as required. Slightly thicken gravy and serve with the 

Roast Beef in Fireless Cooker 

Wipe roast from chuck or rump with damp cloth, tie or skewer, and place in kettle of 
cooker ^ a few sm all pieces of suet. Use two radiators heated to 500° F., and allow 
2, hours for cookmg. Peeled potatoes may be included after roast has cooked for 1 hour 
ii this is done, it is advisable to re-heat top radiator to 450° F. 

Beef, Algerian Style 

Cut 2 pounds beef from the round or shoulder in 1 inch cubes. Sprinkle with salt 
and pepper, dredge hghtly with flour, and sear quickly in a little tried out marrow or olive 

cLotTm-H "d '" lay " S ^ a bU " ered CaSSer ° le> With SHced fresh t0mat0es ' ^y 
chopped m.ld red peppers, and dot over each layer with butter. Repeat until beef is used. 

lZJ-iZ P 2 tTZ:T k " trOWn St ° Ckl C ° Ver ' Bd ~* ^ thC «~ — — ' is 

Stuffed Hamburg Roast 

Trim off fat and tissue, and remove bone from 2 pounds round steak. Pass meat 
through meat chopper tw.ce with 1 green pepper and I medium-sized onion. Cover 1 cup 
™ , bre f d " UmbS W,th C0ld water and ><* stand 1 hour; drain and wring dry in a tea 

and wth th T at , m ' XtUre - SeaS ° n high ' y Wlth Salt and pepper ' add the *Wte of 1 egg! 
bread tm ^ I "^ mgredients thoroughly. Pat mixture out in an oval sheet, lay 
bread stuffing (made as for turkey) in centre, then gradually fold meat over stuffing; press 
meat m an oblong loaf. Try out marrow taken from bone and fat trimmings in a dripping 
pan, add 4 tablespoonsful butter or drippings; place meat in pan, and roast in a medTum 

2h TJ-n ' b8Stmg ° ft6n With * CUP butter mel ted in | cup hot water; afterward in pan. Remove to serving platter and surround with tomato or brown 



Page Thirty-four 


Braised Beef 

Cut desired quantity of chuck, plate, or other cheap meat into cubes, and brown in 
frying pan with drippings, stirring meat constantly. Place in kettle or other suitable dish 
that can be tightly covered. Rinse pan in which beef was browned with i cup boiling water 
and pour over meat. Cover tightly and cook slowly for 2 hours either on top of stove 
or in oven. 

Pour over meat sauce prepared as follows, and continue cooking for another hour. 

Sauce. — Brown 1 chopped onion and 1 carrot in small amount of fat, add few sprigs 
of parsley, § cup diced celery, 1 cup canned tomatoes, salt and paprika, and heat thor- 
oughly before adding to meat. 

Braised Short Ribs 

To each pound of meat, allow about 2 cups water and 1 teaspoonful salt. Simmer for 
about 3 hours in covered vessel, turning meat at end of first hour. Add more water during 
cooking if necessary to prevent meat burning. At end of cooking the most of the liquid 
should be absorbed. Remove ribs, season, and brown in hot oven for about half an hour. 
Remove some of the fat from gravy, thicken, and serve with the ribs. 

Short Ribs, Browned 

To four or five pounds of short ribs add 1 large onion, quartered; cover with boiling 
water and boil for ten minutes. Reduce heat and simmer for one hour. Remove ribs 
to roasting pan and place in hot oven for from one-half to three-quarters of an hour, or until 
ribs are nicely browned. Peeled potatoes may be included during this latter period if 
desired. Thicken liquor in which ribs were boiled, and serve as gravy. 

Short Ribs with Vegetables 

Brown desired quantity of short ribs thoroughly on all sides in hot frying pan. Place 
in covered casserole with a few slices of onion, salt and pepper, and cook slowly for about 
3 hours. When cooked, remove ribs, thicken liquid with flour, re-heat and serve together. 

If desired, boiled potatoes, peas, onions, diced turnips and carrots may be added to the 
gravy or served separately. 

Brisket with Onion Sauce 

Wipe meat with damp cloth, tie into shape with strips of cloth, and place in a deep 
kettle with boiling water to cover. Add herbs for seasoning if desired, and simmer 4 or 5 
hours, or until tender. Salt may be added when meat is partly cooked. Take meat from 
liquid, remove cloth, and place in shallow baking dish. Pour over meat 1 beaten egg, 
sprinkle thickly with coarse bread crumbs, and brown in hot oven. 

For sauce for a 3 pound piece of meat, cook i cup chopped onions with 2 tablespoons- 
ful butter, or dripping, until slightly browned; add 2 tablespoonsful flour, 1$ cups of the 
liquid in which meat was cooked, and 1 tablespoonful minced parsley. Pour sauce over 
meat, and serve. 

Brisket Boiled and Browned 

Simmer brisket with a little celery salt and a slice or two of onion until tender. As 
brisket is very fine grained, this will take from 4 to 6 hours, according to the size of cut used. 
Remove meat from liquor, place in a shallow pan with the skin side up, and score the top 
several times. Dip boiled potatoes in the liquor in which meat was cooked in order to 
coat them with the fat; then arrange them around the meat, and brown all in a hot oven 
for 20 to 30 minutes. Make gravy from some of the liquor, and serve separately. 


Page Thlrly-fice 


Beef Loaf 

Remove fat and tissue from 1$ pounds round or shoulder steak, and grind together 
with i pound Windsor bacon. Add 1 cup bread crumbs, 1 egg beaten with 3 tablespoonsful 
water, i teaspoonful mustard and J teaspoonful salt. Mix thoroughly and pack in well- 
greased bowl. Cover bowl closely and steam for 1J hours. When cooked, drain off any 
moisture which may have collected, invert meat on platter and serve hot, with red currant 
jelly or cranberry sauce. 

Beef Loaf, Panama Style 

Trim off the fat and remove bone from 1$ pounds round steak (with marrow bone). 
Trim off rind from J pound salt pork or Windsor bacon, peel 1 medium-sized onion, and 
remove seeds and veins from 1 mild green pepper. Pass all through the meat chopper 
twice. Soak 1 cup stale bread crumbs 30 minutes in cold water to cover. Wring dry in a 
clean towel. Add to meat mixture, with 1 egg, slightly beaten. Season with salt and add 

1 teaspoonful finely-cut parsley. With the hands, mix thoroughly. Shape in an oblong 
loaf, brush over with soft butter, sprinkle with crumbs. Place in an agate dripping pan, 
lay 3 thin slices salt pork over top and turn around loaf 1 quart stewed and strained tomato 
pulp. Bake 45 minutes in slow oven, basting 3 times with sauce in pan. 

Smothered Beef 

To each pound of meat from rump or chuck, add 1 sliced onion, 1 tablespoonful drip- 
pings, 1 dessert spoon prepared mustard, \ teaspoonful celery salt, \ cup strained tomatoes 
or tomato soup. Dredge meat with flour and brown in the drippings. Brown onions in 
remainder of drippings, add the other ingredients and pour all over meat. Cover and 
cook slowly on top of stove for 3 hours or more, or for 6 hours in a fireless cooker. 

Chipped Beef, Creamed 

Heat together in frying pan 2 tablespoonsful butter and \ cup of milk. When hot, 
add i pound dried beef and cook three minutes; thicken with 4 tablespoonsful flour' 
previously blended with J cup milk to which has been added 4 tablespoonsful grated 
cheese. When thick, add 1 beaten egg. In centre of platter form mound of hot boiled 
r.ce; cover with equal quantity of diced buttered carrots. Surround with creamed beef 

Beef Stew with Vegetables 

Cut in small pieces, chuck, rump, or other inexpensive cut, and sear well. Add peeled 
potatoes, half as many medium-sized tomatoes, and sufficient water or meat stock to 
cover vegetables. Season and cook in fireless cooker with two radiators heated to 450° F. 
Time required, 2 i to 3 hours. 

Beef Stew with Dumplings 

Cut into cubes flank, rump, plate or chuck; dredge in seasoned flour, and sear in a 
little fat in hot frying pan, stirring constantly until well browned. Rinse frying pan with 
boiling water, and simmer meat for about 3 hours, or until tender. To each pound of 
meat use 4 cups diced potatoes, J small onion sliced, \ cups each diced carrot and turnip, 

2 cup flour mixed with water, \ teaspoonful salt, and add to stew the last hour of cooking. 
If dumplings are added, allow 15 minutes for cooking. 

Boiled Beef with Lentils, Horseradish Sauce 

Have ready a 4 pound piece of beef, cut from the lower part of round or face of rump. 
Insert 12 lardoons, season with salt and pepper, dredge with flour and brown richly the 


Page Thirty-ilx 


entire surface in hot pork or marrow fat. Place on a trivet in casserole, Dutch oven, or 
stockpot. Surround with 1 cup each carrot, turnips, celery and onion cut in dice, 2 sprays 
parsley, bit of bay leaf, and boiling water to barely cover meat. Cover closely and simmer 
slowly 4 or 5 hours. Remove to serving platter and surround with lentils cooked with 
bacon in boiling salted water. Strain the liquor in which beef was cooked, thicken, season 
and serve as gravy. 

Boiled Corn Beef 

Select 5 pounds of corned beef, cut from the brisket or rump. If very salt, soak 1 
hour in cold water to cover. Drain, cover with cold water, bring to boiling point, skim 
carefully, then simmer (do not boil) until meat is tender. Remove meat from liquor, reduce 
by boiling; then return meat and let cool in the liquor if to be served cold. If served hot, 
remove to hot serving platter and surround with vegetables boiled separately. Serve 
with hot or cold horseradish sauce. 

Boiled Corned Beef with Vegetables 
The choice cut of corned beef is called the "fancy brisket". Cook this cut as for boiled 
dinner. The cabbage may be quartered, stalk removed and cooked with meat the last § 
hour of cooking (if new, 15 minutes will suffice). Pare and quarter turnips; scrape and cut 
carrots in uniform strips; peel small onions. These four vegetables cook in liquor in which 
beef was cooked. Cook beets separately. Serve beef on hot platter, surround with vege- 
tables. Sprinkle with finely-chopped parsley. Serve horseradish sauce. 

New England Boiled Dinner 

Wash desired quantity of corned beef in cold water, tie or skewer if necessary, covei 
with cold water and bring slowly to a boil. Allow meat to simmer for four or five hours, 
skimming occasionally during first period. One hour before the meat is cooked add 
required quantity of peeled carrots and turnips. Twenty minutes later add peeled potatoes, 
and fifteen minutes before serving add quartered cabbage. 


It is practically impossible to gauge the purchasing of meats with 
sufficient accuracy to avoid some of it being left over. These left-overs 
need not be wasted, as they can be made into a great variety of tasty and 
wholesome dishes with the expenditure of but little time and trouble. 
Bones from roasts and steaks should be utilized in making soup and stock. 
Surplus gravy and the liquid from stews may also be used for soups. A 
few of the uses which can be made of left-over meats, are: — 

Croquettes. Any kind of ground beef, one part mashed potato, or rice and egg, mixed 
with gravy, stock or white sauce, and fried in deep fat. 

Hash. Two parts of any kind of ground beef and one part of mashed or chopped 

Stew. Cold roast beef, steak, etc., may be used in stews instead of fresh meat. Ch- 
it may be cubed and reheated in gravy or white sauce. 

Beef Pie. With a stew as a basis, put in baking dish and cover with baking powder 
biscuits cut about 1 inch in diameter. 

Minced Beef on Toast. Chop cold beef, heat in gravy, and serve on toast. 


Page Thirty-*cOcn 


Escalloped Beef. Cut beef in cubes, mix with gravy, and place in baking dish with 
alternate layers of boiled rice or dressing. Cover with bread crumbs, and brown. 

Shepherd s Pie Same as beef pie, except that cover is of mashed potatoes. 

Jellied Meat. Cold roast, steak, tongue, or tripe, cut in cubes and added to a highly- 
flavoured gelatin stock. Mold, cool, and slice. 

Beef Sandwiches. Finely-ground cold beef, seasoned and mixed with salad dressing, 
Worcestershire sauce, etc. 

Corned Beef Hash 

Slightly cook 2 tablespoonsful minced onions in frying pan in small amount of fat, 
add 2 cups minced corned beef, 3 cups chopped, cooked potatoes, 2 or 3 tablespoonsful 
beef drippings, and J cup water; mix thoroughly, cover and cook slowly for about half an 
hour, or until a brown crust is formed on the bottom. Fold carefully, and serve on hot 

If the oven is in use for other purposes, fuel may be saved by baking the hash in a 
shallow dish from which it can be served. A cup of white sauce may be used instead of the 
water for sake of variety, in which case less fat will be required for cooking. 

A little chopped liver added to corned beef hash is delicious. 

Corned Beef Hash with French Fried Onions 

Finely chop an equal measure of cold cooked corned beef and boiled potatoes, stir in 
a little hot beef broth or boiling water, turn into hot salt pork fat or drippings melted in a 
hot frying pan; toss lightly until ingredients are well mixed and fat absorbed. Cook until 
mixture is heated through; then let stand until a crisp crust is formed on bottom. Fold 
as an omelet on a hot serving platter and surround with French fried onions. Serve im- 

Escalloped Corned Beef 

In 1 cup medium white sauce, cook 1 stalk of celery and 2 slices of onion which have 
been chopped fine. Place in shallow, well-greased baking dish 2 cups of cubed corned 
beef. Pour sauce over meat, and cover with bread crumbs dipped in melted butter. Brown 
in hot oven. 

Sliced Roast Beef, Mexican Style 

Cut cold roast beef in thin, uniform slices and re-heat in a sauce made as follows : 
Cook 1 finely-chopped onion in 2 tablespoonsful butter 5 minutes. Add 1 red and 1 green 
pepper, 1 small clove of garlic, each finely chopped, and 1 cup thick tomato puree. Simmer 
slowly 15 minutes, then season with J tablespoonful Worcestershire sauce, J teaspoonful 
celery salt, 2 drops Tabasco sauce and salt to season. Serve on hot platter, surrounded 
with potatoes on the half shell. 

Beef Pie 

Cut cold cooked meat in § inch cubes, removing all fat, gristle and tissue, reserving 
some of the crisp fat. Put into a 3 pint baking dish and cover generously with brown 
sauce; add i dozen fresh mushrooms, broken in pieces and cooked 5 minutes with lj 
tablespoonsful butter. Mix well meat, sauce and mushrooms, cover with hot, well-seasoned 
mashed potatoes, making several openings in top to allow steam to escape. Pipe a frill 
of mashed potato around edge of dish, using pastry bag and rose tube. Brush over with 
beaten egg and bake 20 minutes in a hot oven. Serve brown gravy in sauce boat. 


Page Thirty-ctght 


Beef Steak Pie 

Cover with boiling water and simmer for half an hour chuck or round steak which has 
been cut in small pieces or strips. Add diced carrots, minced celery, onion, halved potatoes, 
and any seasoning desired, and allow to simmer while pastry is being made. Thicken 
gravy with flour and cover with pastry or crust made as for baking powder biscuits. Brush 
with milk, and bake until paste is well browned —about 40 minutes. 

Savory Beef Pie 

Line the bottom and sides of a well-greased baking dish with hot, highly-seasoned 
mashed potatoes, to which was added 1| tablespoonsful finely -chopped chives or onion; 
over this place a thick layer of left-over roast beef, chopped or cut in small pieces and 
seasoned with salt and pepper, a few drops onion juice, 1 tablespoonful Worcestershire 
sauce, and moisten with brown mushroom sauce; cover with a thin layer of potato mixture, 
garnishing cover with some of the mixture forced through the pastry bag and star tube; 
brush lightly with beaten egg over top. Bake in hot oven until mixture is heated through 
and potato is delicately browned. 

Shepherd's Pie 

Butter an earthen baking dish and line to the depth of 1| inches with hot mashed 
potatoes, season with finely-chopped chives or onion (1 tablespoonful to 2 cups mashed 
potatoes). Fill centre with chopped left-over cold beef. Moisten with brown or cream 
sauce, to which add § tablespoonful minced parsley and onion juice. Cover with a layer 
of the potato mixture, make several openings in top of pie, and brush top over with beaten 
egg diluted with milk. Bake in oven until heated through and well browned. Serve hot 
in the baking dish or unmould on hot platter, surround with sauce and sprinkle with 

Beef Pies, French Style 

Remove tops of French or dinner rolls with sharp knife and scoop or pull out the 
inside with fork or fingers. Fill each roll with corn beef hash, well-seasoned hamburger, 
sausage or other meat; replace tops, pour small quantity fairly thick gravy over each 
roll and heat in oven until rolls are nicely browned. 

Curried Beef with Rice 

Grind left-over beef with small amount of onion, and pepper and salt to taste. Heat 
in thin white sauce with which has been blended curry powder in proportion of 1 teaspoon- 
ful to each cup of sauce. Serve surrounded with hot boiled rice. 

Beef on the Half Shell 

Thoroughly wash six medium sized potatoes and bake until done. When cooked, cut 
potatoes in halves lengthwise and scoop out the pulp so as to leave the half shells whole. 
Mash the pulp and mix with 1 cup finely-chopped meat, 1 tablespoonful chopped parsley, 
1 teaspoonful grated onion, 3 teaspoonsful butter, pepper and salt to taste, and sufficient 
milk to moisten. Beat well, pack lightly into potato shells, rounding slightly on top. 
Brush with beaten egg, sprinkle with buttered bread crumbs, and place in fairly hot oven 
until mixture is thoroughly heated through and crumbs are nicely browned. 

Beef Steak Pudding 

Cut lean beef into small pieces, or put through the meat chopper, using coarse grinder. 
Season. A finely-choppsd onion may be added if desired. 


Page Thirty-nine 


flour, i cup finely-chopped suet, 2 teaspoonsful baking powder and a little salt. Moisten 
with water or milk to make a dough that will roll. Line a basin with this dough, put in the 
chopped meat and fold the dough over to cover the top, moistening the edges and sticking 
them together so that no flavours may be lost. Steam from two to four hours, according 
to the s.ze of the pudding. It should turn onto a platter without breaking so that all the 
juices are contained within the pudding. 

If desired, this may be put into a floured pudding cloth and boiled instead of steamed. 

American Chop Suey 

Cook until tender in large frying pan in small amount of fat or, if preferred, a little 
water J cup sliced onion and 4 cup diced celery. Add 1 cup Hamburger, or minced cold 
beef, tongue or tnpe, 1 cup canned tomatoes, 2 cups of boiled, or 1 can, spaghetti, 2 table- 
spoonsful Worcestershire or Chinese sauce, salt and pepper. Boil all together long enough 
to cook the meat and thoroughly heat other ingredients. 

If the canned spaghetti is used the tomatoes may be omitted, or a few spoonsful of 
tomato catsup added instead. 

This makes an excellent supper, luncheon or picnic dish. 

Chinese Chop Suey 
Brown 2 cups cubed lean beef, tongue or other meat (chicken, pork and veal are 
commonly used) in a little fat in large frying pan. Add I good sized sliced onion and cook 
for five minutes longer. Add 1 J cups beef stock and 2 cups diced celery and simmer for 
twenty minutes. Then add § cup sliced mushrooms previously browned in a little fat 
and 4 tablespoonful molasses, 2 tablespoonsful Soy sauce, salt and pepper. Thicken with 
2 tablespoonsful cornstarch made into a paste with a little cold water, and cook for five 

Bean or bamboo sprouts may be added, in which case the celery may be omitted or a 
smaller quantity used. The sprouts and sauce may be obtained from any Chinese store 
and are also carried by many groceries. A little chopped green pepper and pimento are 
also suitable additions. 

Jellied Meat Salad 

h . ^ 2 *f l bles P° onsfuI 8 elati "e in cold water, then dissolve it in 2 cups seasoned, 
hot stock When partly cool, coat individual molds by pouring in 2 or 3 tablespoonsful 
of the gelatine and rotating them until sides and bottom are covered. As this coating 
begins to set, press into it 4 green pepper cut in rings, 4 pimento cut in strips and 4 cup 
cucumber slices. Mix with rest of the jelly 2 cups diced beef, tongue, tripe or other meat, 
1 cup diced celery, 1 teaspoonful minced onion, 4 cup cooked green peas or string beans 
salt and pepper to taste, and fill molds. Chill and serve on bed of crisp water cress or 

Cold Meats, Salads and Sandwich Fillings 

The serving of tough, stringy, tasteless cold meats is largely responsible 
for meat in this form not being more popular. To those, however, who have 
tasted cold beef of either of the standard grades, the juicy tenderness and 
fine flavour of the lean and melting sweetness of the fat have been a revela- 
tion. The deliciousness of a cold roast or cold boiled cut, such as brisket, 
from branded beef, as well as the interest of convenience and economy, 


Page Forty 


should be an inducement to serve cold meat more frequently. Beef of this 
quality needs no fancy sauces or condiments to make it attractive, the 
true flavour of the beef itself being sufficient recommendation. Hence, 
cold graded beef may be served plain with a little seasoning, or combined 
for variety in a great many attractive ways. A few suggestions suitable 
for luncheons, picnics, etc., follow: — 

Sliced cold roast beef, boiled fresh beef, corned beef or tongue, with a little pepper and 
salt, make most attractive sandwiches; or these meats may be chopped and mixed with a 
little horseradish, mayonnaise, Worcestershire sauce, olives, sweet pickles, etc. A tasty 
sandwich spread is made by putting through the food chopper 1 cup cold beef, J cup 
seeded raisins, 6 ripe olives, and 6 sweet pickles. Mix this with sufficient mayonnaise 
to bind. 

Combinations for Salads 

Corned beef with finely-chopped parsley and mayonnaise, garnished with sliced 
pickled beets and sliced boiled eggs. 

Boiled beef combined with minced parsley, chopped green peppers and onion, a little 
mint, and a few capers. 

Liver may be combined with crisp bacon, corned beef, or salt pork. 

Sweetbreads make a very tempting salad, and may be combined with diced celery 
and sliced olives. One pair will serve six. 

Jellied tongue, hock or tripe, alone or in combinations, make excellent foundations 
for salads and for sandwiches. 

Miscellaneous Meats 

While all beef serves the nutritive requirements of the body in so 
many ways that it may properly be considered necessary not only for build- 
ing and maintaining health but as a protective food as well, certain of the 
by-products, or glandular organs, are particularly valuable in this respect. 
By virtue of the superior quality of their proteins, and the abundance of 
their vitamines, they are nutritively the choicest of meats. As a result of 
recent research, such by-products as liver, kidney, heart, and sweetbreads 
stand in a new light, and they are now quite commonly and very success- 
fully used in the treatment of specific diseases, such as anaemia, pellagra, 
tuberculosis, debility, etc. It is evident, therefore, that the wholesomeness 
of the diet can be materially enhanced and variety added to the menu by 
the more frequent use of these by-products, for which there is often so little 
demand that they usually sell at comparatively low prices. 


The attractiveness of tongue is too well known to require much com- 
ment. While it does not possess the special qualities of some of the other 
miscellaneous meats, particularly the glandular organs, it contains very 


Page Forty-one 


little waste and is therefore an economical form of meat. It is commonly 
sold fresh, pickled or smoked, and is equally delicious served either hot or 

Braised Tongue 
Cover fresh beef tongue with boiling water. Simmer for two hours. Remove skin 
and roots, and place in baking dish. Add 1 can tomatoes, 1 can peas, 2 cups diced carrots, 
i cup minced onion, } cup chopped celery, or 1 teaspoonful celery salt. Season, cover 
and bake for two hours in moderate oven. If necessary, some of the stock in which the 
tongue was boiled may be added. Serve hot, surrounded by the vegetables. If desired, 
the sauce may be thickened slightly with flour. 

Boiled Smoked Tongue 

Bend the tip of a smoked tongue around and fasten to the root with a skewer, or truss 
the ends together. Put in kettle and cover with cold water, heat to boiling point; drain 
and cover again with cold water, cover and cook slowly until tender (about 2\ hours) 
Dram, remove skin, roots and fat. Serve on a bed of spinach. Garnish with hard cooked 

Tongue in Tomato Aspic 

Simmer together for 20 minutes 4 cups strained tomato juice, 1* teaspoonsful salt, 
6 whole cloves, 1 small onion chopped, and pepper to taste. Add } teaspoonful beef extract 
and 2 s tablespoonsful gelatine previously softened in cold water. Wet a mould with cold 
water, pour in thin layer of the jelly and when almost set, put in 1 cooked tongue, either 
whole or sliced. Pour in remainder of jelly. If tongue is sliced, add jelly and tongue 
alternately. Chill and serve. 

Boiled Calves' Tongues 
Cover the desired number of fresh tongues with boiling water (about 4 for medium- 
sized family), add \ cup carrots cut in cubes, 2 blades celery broken in pieces, 1 onion 
stuck with j dozen cloves, \ teaspoonful peppercorns, a small piece of bay leaf, and salt to 
season. Cook slowly until tongues are tender (about IJ hours); drain from liquid, remove 
sk.n, trim off roots and split lengthwise. Re-heat in the following mixture: Heat to boiling 
point 2 cups each thick tomato pulp highly seasoned, and brown stock. Dispose tongues 
in centre hot serving platter, pour over sauce, and surround with a border of spinach. 
Garnish with hard boiled eggs cut to represent daisies. 

Beef Tongue en Casserole 

Wash a fresh beef tongue; cover with boiling, salted water, and simmer for about 
2 hours, or until tender. Remove skin and unsightly parts, and place in casserole with 
1 cup sliced carrots and a little minced onion, celery and parsley. Thicken enough of the 
liquid in which tongue was boiled to cover meat and vegetables. Season, cover and cook 
in moderate oven \ hour. Remove cover, and cook \ hour longer to slightly brown meat. 


Beef heart furnishes a cheap form of nourishment, and is especially 
valuable for those whose diet requres foods with blood-building properties. 
It is ordinarily cooked by dressing and roasting like a fowl. Being quite 
close-grained, it requires fairly long, slow cooking. 


Page Forty-two 


Calves' Hearts Stuffed and Braised 

Remove veins, arteries and blood clots, wash, stuff and sew. Sprinkle with salt, 
pepper, roll in flour and brown richly in hot dripping. Place in Dutch oven or in one of 
the small vessels in fireless cooker. Half cover with boiling water, surround with 6 slices 
carrot, 1 stalk celery broken in pieces, 1 onion sliced, 2 sprays parsley, a bit of bay leaf, 
3 cloves and i teaspoonful pepper-corns. Cover closely and bake slowly 2 more hours,' 
basting often if cooked in Dutch oven. If necessary, add more water. Remove hearts to 
serving platter, strain the liquor, and thicken with flour diluted with water. Season with 
salt, pepper, and \ teaspoonful kitchen bouquet. 

Stuffing. Mix i cup cracker crumbs, J cup stale bread crumbs, J cup butter melted 
in J cup hot water, season with i teaspoonful salt, \ teaspoonful pepper, 1 tablespoonfu' 
grated onion. Mix thoroughly. 

Braised Beef Heart 

Soak heart in cold water for 1 hour; trim, wash, wipe dry and fill cavity with follow- 
ing dressing: 1 cup bread crumbs, small onion chopped fine, \ teaspoonful salt, \ teaspoon- 
ful pepper, \ teaspoonful poultry seasoning, 3 tablespoonsful bacon or pork drippings, stock 
or water to moisten. Rub heart with dripping and cook in covered casserole in slow oven 
2 5 or 3 hours. Serve with tomato sauce. 


Liver, which at one time was regarded as the poor man's meat, or fit 
only as food for animals, has as a result of recent discoveries which have 
established its value in the treatment of pernicious anaemia and other 
diseases risen rapidly in popularity, as well as in price. An extract of liver 
is now successfully used in treating the sick, and the occasional use of liver 
in some form is recommended in the case of persons in normal health. In 
addition to the many ways in which liver can be prepared, liver combines 
well with many other meats, and a little liver added to hash is especially 

Braised Calf's Liver 

Cover desired quantity of sliced liver with boiling water and allow to stand five 
minutes. Dry, season with salt and pepper and brown lightly in frying pan. Place in 
casserole together with one small diced carrot, one sliced onion, salt, pepper and sufficient 
broth or beef stock to cover. Cook for one hour or longer. Serve on deep platter with 
the gravy and vegetables, surrounded by boiled onions. 

Broiled Liver 

Slice desired quantity of liver, cover with boiling water and let stand for five minutes. 
Wipe dry and dip in seasoned flour. Broil over medium heat until done. Dot with butter, 
season, and serve hot. 

Liver and Bacon 
Cook desired quantity of bacon. Slice liver one-third to one-half inch thick and 
cover with boiling water for five minutes. Dry, dip in seasoned flour and brown in the 
bacon fat. Serve liver and bacon together. 


Page Forty-three 


Liver and Onions 

Cook liver as indicated in recipe for Liver and Bacon. Serve together with onions 
which have been first boiled and then lightly browned in frying pan. 

Baked Liver 

Wash and thoroughly dry liver and cut in slices of uniform thickness. Roll in flour, 
fine oatmeal or bread crumbs, place in dripping pan and cook until tender in a moderate 
oven. Five minutes before serving, cover with tomato sauce. 

Broiled Liver 

Slice Uver (calf's preferred), wipe dry, season with salt and pepper and brush with 
bacon fat, melted butter or vegetable oil. Broil over moderate heat, turning frequently 
until cooked. Serve hot with thin slices of crisp bacon. 

Braised Calf's Liver 

Wipe liver and skewer into shape, if necessary. Draw small lardoons through the 
liver in parallel rows, leaving each lardoon extend j inch above surface. Place liver in a 
casserole or Dutch oven, surround with remnants of lardoons. Sprinkle with salt and 
pepper and dredge with flour. Surround with 3 cup each carrots, onions and celery, cut in 
small cubes; add 3 teaspoonful pepper-corns, 6 cloves, 1 spray parsley, a bit of bay leaf 
and 2 cups hot brown stock or water. Cover closely and cook in a slow oven 2 hours. 
Remove cover the last 3 hour of cooking that liver may brown richly. Remove liver to 
serving platter and set aside in a warm place. Strain liquor in casserole and use for making 
a brown sauce. Pour sauce around liver and serve. Braised liver may be served cold, 
thinly sliced. 

Braised Calf's Liver with Vegetables 

Draw matchlike lardoons of fat salt pork through upper side of a calf's liver. Put the 
trimmings in a large frying pan, and, when the fat is tried out, lay in the liver and brown 
first on one side, then turn and brown the other. Remove the liver to a well-greased 
casserole. Add 3 tablespoonsful flour to fat in pan, stir until smooth, then add gradually 
3 cups brown stock, stirring constantly until boiling point is reached. Season with salt, 
pepper and § teaspoonful cayenne. Pour sauce over liver, add 2 cups small carrots, cut 
in thin slices crosswise, 1 dozen small onions, cooked in butter 5 minutes, and 1 stalk celery, 
sliced crosswise. Cover and cook 2 hours. Remove liver to serving platter, surround with 
vegetables. Remove fat from sauce, add 5 cup tomato puree, re-heat and pour over liver. 

Braised Larded Liver 

Skewer, tie in shape (if necessary) and lard the upper side of calf's liver. Place in a 
deep pan with remnants of lardoons; season with salt and pepper; dredge with flour. 
Surround with 3 each carrot, onion, celery, cut in dice; J teaspoonful pepper-corns, 6 
cloves, bit of bay leaf and 2 cups brown stock or water. Cover closely and bake slowly 
2 hours; uncover the last 20 minutes of cooking. Remove from pan, serve with French 
onions, or pour around brown sauce. 

Liver Loaf 

Cover sliced liver with boiling water and let stand for a few minutes. Wipe, dry 
remove any fibrous parts, and run through food chopper. To each cup of chopped liver add 
1 cup bread crumbs, 1 egg, 1 teaspoonful salt, i teaspoonful celery salt, 3 teaspoonful 
pepper. Mix well, and bake for one hour in greased mould set in pan of water. Serve 
either hot or cold. 


Page Forty-jour 



Kidneys are considered to be practically the equal of liver as sources of 
vitamines and as remedies in the treatment of certain diseases. 

Fried Kidneys 

Cut in slices and soak in warm water for two and one-half hours, changing the water 
at least twice. Wipe slices dry, dust with flour or cracker crumbs, salt and pepper. Fry 
to a light brown in small amount of bacon fat, butter or dripping 

Kidney Stew 
Soak kidneys two hours or longer, drain, clean and dry. Slice, dredge with flour and 
brown in frying pan. Add one small carrot and one small onion which have been previously 
cooked in two cups of water. Season, thicken with flour and serve. 

Beef and Kidney Pie 

Soak desired number of kidneys in warm water two hours or longer, changing the 
water at least twice. Cut in pieces, add equal amount of round or chuck steak also cut in 
pieces, and place in baking dish with sufficient boiling water to cover. Add a little finely- 
chopped onion and sufficient flour to thicken, season to taste and cover with biscuit crust. 
Bake slowly until meat is thoroughly cooked and crust nicely browned. 

Kidneys en Casserole 

Remove skin from desired number of kidneys; split, remove fat, veins and cords 
and soak in cold water three or four hours, changing the water several times. Parboil 
for ten minutes, and place in casserole along with sliced carrots, cubed potatoes, minced 
onion, and canned tomatoes. Season, and cook in moderate oven for two and one-half 


Sweetbreads are considered quite a delicacy and are greatly esteemed 
as a food dainty in high-class restaurants and hotels. 

Sweetbread meat is very perishable and should be prepared as soon 
as possible after being received from the market. To prepare sweetbreads, 
place them in cold water with a little salt for at least one hour, changing the 
water several times. Parboil in slightly salted water for from 10 to 20 
minutes until firm. A few drops of vinegar may be added to the water. 
When cooked, plunge into cold water, remove fatty parts and tissue, wipe 
with a cloth, and keep in cool place until required. Sweetbreads thus pre- 
pared may be kept for two days and may be cooked in any desired way, 
such as sauted, broiled, fried, creamed, braised, etc. 

Creamed Sweetbreads 

Cut boiled sweetbreads into cubes and reheat in well seasoned white sauce. Serve 
hot on squares of toast, in patty cases, or in forms made from loaf bread which have been 
well browned in hot oven. Sprinkle with parsley and a dust of paprika. 

For variety, some canned or fresh mushrooms cut in small pieces may be added. 


Page Forty-fiee 


Fried Sweetbreads 
Slice parboiled sweetbreads and saute in bacon fat or butter. Serve surrounded 
with green peas, season with salt, pepper and butter. 

Braised Sweetbreads 

Place whole parboiled sweetbreads in casserole, add, according to number of sweet- 
breads and quantity desired, sliced onion, canned tomatoes, celery, mushrooms, pepper, 
salt, and a little Worcestershire sauce. Cover and bake until vegetables are soft and well 
blended. If desired, thicken gravy slightly with flour before serving. 

Sweetbread Patties 

Parboil 1 pair sweetbreads in boiling, salted, acidulated water 15 minutes. Drain 
and cut in $ inch cubes or small pieces. Add J the measure of small mushrooms, heated 
in the liquor in the can, drained, cooled and sliced, and 1 tablespoonful pimiento cut in 
bits. Reheat in 1 j cups of Bechamel sauce and serve in puff paste patty shells. Pass the 
filling to each guest that more moisture may be added to patties. 

Creamed Sweetbreads in Green Peppers 

Parboil 1 pair veal sweetbreads in salted, acidulated water 10 minutes. Cool and cut 
in I inch cubes. There should be 1 cup. Melt 2 tablespoonsful butter, add 2 tablespoonsful 
flour, stir until frothy. Then pour on gradually i cup white stock or chicken broth, add 
} cup hot thick cream, J cup finely-cut fresh mushrooms. Season with salt, pepper and 
Worcestershire sauce. Cut slices from the stem ends of 6 mild green peppers, remove 
seeds and veins, parboil 15 minutes. Cool, fill with mixture, cover with buttered crumbs 
and bake until crumbs are brown. Pour yellow Bechamel sauce around peppers. 

Breaded Sweetbreads with Noodles 

Parboil 2 pair sweetbreads in the usual way. Drain, lard, and dip them in crumbs, 
then in egg, and again in crumbs. Cook 2 tablespoonsful each chopped onion, carrot and 
celery, 1 tablespoonful finely-chopped parsley in 4 tablespoonsful butter, without brown- 
ing. Add sweetbreads and cook until well browned, basting and turning often. Prepare 
a sauce by browning 2 tablespoonsful butter in a saucepan; add 4 tablespoonsful flour, 
stir until well blended and richly browned. Add liquor from vegetables from pan in which 
sweetbreads were cooked, § cup thick tomato pulp, 1 tablespoonful each pimiento pulp 
and grated horseradish, and 1$ cups brown stock. Stir until well blended. Boil noodles 
20 minutes in chicken stock or boiling salted water, drain, dispose in centre of platter, 
sprinkle with Parmesan cheese, arrange sweetbreads around noodles; strain sauce over 


Although a form of meat with which a great many people are un- 
familiar, tripe is a tasty and economical dish and makes a very desirable 
addition to the menu. The variety of ways in which it can be prepared 
makes it adaptable as a dish for any meal. 

Tripe as obtained from the dealer is usually already boiled. If not, it 
should be thoroughly cleaned in several waters and then simmered until 
almost tender. This will take twenty-five or thirty minutes. A teaspoonfu! 



Page Forty-six 


or so of vinegar added to the water in which tripe is cooked helps to make 
it tender and improves the flavour. It may then be prepared for the table 
in a variety of ways. It should be dried thoroughly with a cloth or cheese- 
cloth before broiling or frying. As tripe does not possess any pronounced 
meat flavour of its own, it should be well seasoned with salt and pepper. 
The more highly seasoned vegetables such as onion, parsley, tomato, etc., 
combine well with tripe. Minced tripe may also be added to other meats 
in making meat loaf, hash, potted or jellied meats, etc. 

Stuffed Tripe 

Spread a whole piece of boiled tripe of size required with any good dressing such as 
sausage, potato or poultry dressing. Roll, tie well, and place in casserole or other covered 
dish; place a few slices of breakfast bacon on top of tripe, cover, and bake thirty or forty- 
five minutes. 

Serve hot, sliced, either as it is, or with tartar, tomato or other sauce. 

Broiled Tripe 

Dip fresh tripe in melted fat, then in fine cracker or bread crumbs, and broil on well 
greased broiler over hot fire. Dot with butter, season and serve. 

For variety, a few slices of bacon or some sausages may be broiled and served with 
the tripe. 

Tripe a la Creole 

Cut either fresh or pickled tripe in small pieces or strips, boil until tender; then add, 
according to quantity desired, sliced onion, canned or fresh tomatoes, a few pieces of fresh 
celery chopped fine, some chopped green pepper, and cook slowly for another twenty min- 
utes. Thicken with flour, add a small piece of butter, and season to taste. 

Creamed Tripe 

Cut in small cubes desired quantity of boiled tripe, season with pepper and salt and 
reheat in rich white sauce. Serve on hot toast, in patty shells, or in cases which have been 
shaped from bread and browned in hot oven. Sprinkle with parsley and a dash of paprika. 

Fricassed Tripe with Onions 
Boil four or five medium sized onions for half an hour, drain, slice and place in frying 
pan with 1 tablespoonful of butter, \ teaspoonful or more each of salt, sugar, dry mustard, 
and a dash of pepper; cook together until thoroughly blended and pour over desired quan- 
tity of hot boiled tripe. Serve immediately. 

Fried Tripe 

Cut boiled tripe in small pieces or strips. Dip in fine, seasoned cracker or bread 
crumbs, then in beaten egg and again in crumbs. Saute in bacon fat or butter, or fry in 
deep fat, until a rich golden brown. Serve with tartar or tomato sauce. 

Fried Tripe in Batter 

Cut boiled tripe in small pieces or strips, brush with melted bacon fat or butter, dip 
in batter, and fry in deep fat until a rich golden brown. 


Page Fortyseoen 


Tripe Batter No. 1 

1 cup flour J tablespoonful vinegar 

1 e BS i cup cold water 

i teaspoonful salt 1 teaspoonful butter 

Mix flour and salt and add water gradually, stirring until perfectly smooth; then add 
beaten egg, vinegar and butter. 

Tripe Batter No. 2 
1 cup flour } C up milk 

1 well-beaten egg J teaspoonful salt 

Mix together until perfectly smooth. 


Ox Joints en Casserole 

Separate ox tails at joints, parboil 5 minutes in boiling water to cover, drain and 
rinse thoroughly. Sprinkle with salt, pepper and dredge with flour. Melt | cup butter in 
a frying pan, add 1 sliced onion and saute until joints are well browned. Remove joints; 
to fat, add \ cup flour, brown slightly, stirring constantly. Add slowly 2 cups brown 
stock or water and 1 large can of tomatoes, i tablespoonful salt and \ teaspoonful black 
pepper. Add onion and joints, cover and cook slowly in oven 3 to 4 hours. Add more 
moisture if necessary. Remove joints, strain liquor, add 2 cups each carrot and turnips 
cut in straws and previously parboiled in boiling salt water 10 minutes. Return joints 
to liquor, place in oven to finish cooking. Serve in casserole. 

Braised Ox Tails 
Wash ox tails thoroughly in cold water, cut in pieces for serving, wipe with cloth and 
roll in seasoned flour. Brown quickly in hot fat. Put in bottom of baking dish or casserole 
1 cup each of diced celery and carrots, \ cup diced turnip, and \ cup sliced onion. Place 
the browned ox tails on top of vegetables, season with salt and pepper, and add sufficient 
boiling water to cover. Cover and cook in moderate oven for three hours. Thicken gravy 
with flour before serving. 

Dumplings No. 1 
Sift together 2 cups flour, 4 teaspoonsful baking powder, and \ teaspoonful salt. Add, 
gradually, § cup milk to make soft dough, and drop by spoonfuls on top of hot stew. Cover 
and cook 15 minutes. 

Dumplings No. 2 
To 1 lightly beaten egg, add 2 teaspoonsful baking powder, } teaspoonful salt, and 
mix well; then add 5 tablespoonsful milk and sufficient flour to make a soft dough. Drop 
by spoonfuls into hot broth; cover and cook from fifteen to twenty minutes, keeping 
broth at boiling point. Serve immediately. 

Suet Pudding 
One cup finely-chopped suet, 2 cups flour, 2 teaspoonsful baking powder, a little salt, 
and a few raisins or currants. Moisten with sufficient water or milk to make a fairly stiff 


Page Forty-eight 


dough. Shape into a roll, wrap in a floured cloth, and boil for from J to -J- of an hour, 
either with the meat or in a separate pot. 

This makes a nourishing accompaniment to boiled beef dinners. 

Yorkshire Pudding No. 1 

To 1J cups pastry flour and small $ teaspoonful salt, add gradually lj cups milk, 
stirring to a smooth batter; then add 3 lightly beaten eggs and turn into a hot dripping 
pan which has been brushed with hot beef dripping. Set in warm place until well risen, 
baste with beef dripping and bake in hot oven 20 minutes. 

Yorkshire Pudding No. 2 

Mix and sift j teaspoonful salt with 1 cup flour; add 1 cup milk gradually, making a 
smooth paste. Beat 2 eggs until light and add to batter; beat batter thoroughly and 
bake in well-greased pan in hot oven for 35 minutes. After pudding is risen it may be 
basted with drippings from roast beef. 

Bechamel Sauce 

Melt \ cup butter in saucepan, add } cup flour, stir until smooth. Add gradually l\ 
cups highly seasoned chicken stock while stirring constantly. Add i cup hot cream and 
beat until smooth and glossy. Season with salt, pepper and f.g. of nutmeg. If a yellow 
sauce is desired, remove sauce from range and add the beaten yolks of 2 eggs diluted with 
\ cup warm cream. Do not allow sauce to boil after adding egg yolks. 

Creole Sauce 

Prepare a brown mushroom sauce. Melt 2 tablespoonsful butter in a saucepan; 
add 1 green pepper finely chopped; 1 small onion, finely chopped; cook 5 minutes. Add 2 
tomatoes, cut in pieces, or 1 cup of canned tomatoes and 10 olives pared from the pit in one 
continuous curl. Cook 3 minutes. Add the brown sauce and bring to boiling point. Do 
not strain the sauce. Serve with steaks, chops and fillet of beef. 

Maitre d'Hotel Butter 
Cream \ cup butter; add § teaspoonful salt, \ teaspoonful pepper, 1 tablespoonful 
lemon juice and 1 tablespoonful chopped parsley. Mix well. 

Mushroom Sauce 

Melt together 2 tablespoonsful butter, 2 tablespoonsful drippings and blend with 
4 tablespoonsful flour. When flour is brown add 1 teaspoonful Worcestershire sauce, J 
teaspoonful salt and 2 cups beef stock or equal amount of water to which 2 teaspoonsful 
beef extract has been added; boil, stirring constantly, for 5 minutes. Add 1 can or % 
pound fresh mushrooms sufficiently in advance of serving to heat through. 

Plain Brown Sauce 

Melt 4 tablespoonsful butter in saucepan; brown richly. Add S\ tablespoonsful 
flour and continue browning, stirring constantly. Add 2 cups hot brown stock gradually 
while beating briskly; add \ teaspoonful salt, \ teaspoonful pepper; bring to boiling point. 


Page Forty-nine 


Sauce Piquant 

Make a plain brown sauce. Simmer 1 tablespoonful each finely-chopped chives, olives, 
mild red pepper, pickles and capers in 2 tablespoonsful vinegar 5 minutes. Add to brown 
sauce and simmer 15 minutes. 

Thick White Sauce 

Melt 2\ tablespoonsful butter in saucepan; add 5} tablespoonsful flour mixed with 
J teaspoonful salt, few grains pepper, stir to a smooth paste; add 1 cup scalded milk, 
stirring constantly. Bring to boiling point and beat until smooth and glossy. 

Thin White Sauce 

Melt 2 tablespoonsful butter in saucepan; add \\ tablespoonsful flour mixed well with 
i teaspoonful salt and few grains white pepper; let cook 1 minute; then add gradually 1 
cup hot milk or thin cream, bearing constantly until mixture is smooth and glossy. 

Tomato Sauce 

Melt 4 tablespoonsful butter, add 2 tablespoonsful each finely chopped onion and 
carrot, 1 tablespoonful finely chopped parsley. Cook 5 minutes, stirring constantly, 
strain. Add 4 tablespoonsful flour, when well blended add 1 cup each brown stock and 
thick tomato puree. Season with salt, few grains cayenne and 1 tablespoonful Worcester- 
shire sauce. Simmer twenty-five minutes. 

Tomato Sauce (For Creole Croquettes) 

Brown J cup butter, add J cup flour, continue browning, stirring constantly. Add 
li cups each of brown stock and thick stewed and strained tomato pulp. Add a slice 
each of carrot and onion, a bit of bay leaf, a sprig of parsley and 4 cloves. Simmer slowly 
10 minutes, season highly with salt, pepper and Tabasco. Strain over creole croquettes. 


Pag* Fifty 



Accompaniments and Sauces 48 

American Chop Suey 40 

Baked Liver 44 

Baked Stuffed Flank 33 

Beef, Algerian Style 34 

Beef and Kidney Pie 45 

Beef Loaf 36 

Beef Loaf, Panama Style 36 

Beef on the Half Shell 39 

Beef Pie 38 

Beef Pies, French Style 39 

Beef Steak Pie 39 

Beef Steak Pudding 39 

Beef Stew with Dumplings 36 

Beef Stew with Vegetables 36 

Beef Tongue en Casserole 42 

Boiled Beef with Lentils, Horseradish 

Sauce 36 

Boiled Calves' Tongue 42 

Boiled Corned Beef 37 

Boiled Corned Beef with Vegetables. . . 37 

Boiled Smoked Tongue 42 

Braised Beef 35 

Braised Beef Heart 43 

Braised Calf's Liver 43 

Braised Calf's Liver with Vegetables . . 44 

Braised Larded Liver 44 

Braised Ox Tails 48 

Braised Short Ribs 35 

Braised Sweetbreads 46 

Braised Tongue 42 

Breaded Sweetbreads with Noodles ... 46 

Brisket Boiled and Browned 35 

Brisket with Onion Sauce 35 

Broiled Liver 43 

Broiled Sirloin Steak 27 

Broiled Steak with Blanket of Clams. . 27 

Broiled Tripe 47 

Calves' Hearts Stuffed and Braised ... 43 

Chinese Chop Suey 40 

Chipped Beef, Creamed 36 

Chuck Steak with Onions 30 

Corned Beef Hash 38 

Corned Beef Hash with French Fried 

Onions 38 


Creamed Sweetbreads 45 

Creamed Sweetbreads in Green Pep- 
pers 46 

Creamed Tripe 47 

Curried Beef with Rice 39 

Dumplings 48 

Escalloped Corned Beef 38 

Fillet Mignons, Devilled, Brown Mush- 
room Sauce 28 

Fillet Mignon, Maitre d'Hdtel Butter . 28 

Flank Steak en Casserole 33 

Flank Steak, Stuffed 33 

Fricassed Tripe with Onions 47 

Fried Kidneys 45 

Fried Sweetbreads 46 

Fried Tripe 47 

Fried Tripe in Batter 47 

Hamburg Steak a la Tartare 32 

Hamburg Steak, Plain 31 

Hamburg Steak with Onions 32 

Jellied Meat Salad 40 

Kidneys en Casserole 45 

Kidney Stew 45 

Liver and Bacon 43 

Liver and Onions 44 

Liver Loaf 44 

New England Boiled Dinner 37 

Ox Joints en Casserole 48 

Pan Broiled Fillets Mignon, Sultana 

Sauce 29 

Pan Broiled Flank Steak 33 

Planked Hamburger 32 

Planked Larded Fillet of Beef 28 

Planked Sirloin Steak 28 

Poor Man's Beef Steak 31 

Pot Roast 34 

Page Fifty-one 



Pot Roast with Vegetables 34 

Pressed Beef Flank 33 

Roast Beef in Fireless Cooker 34 

Round Steak Cutlets 29 

Round Steak en Casserole 29 

Round Steak in Individual Casseroles . 29 

Round Steak, Vienna Style 30 

Round Steak, Western Style 30 

Salads 40 

Sandwich Fillings 40 

Sauces and Accompaniments 48 

Savory Beef Pie 39 

Shepherd's Pie 39 

Short Ribs, Browned 35 

Short Ribs with Vegetables 35 

Sirloin Steak a la Hollandaise 28 


Sirloin Steak, Fried Bananas 28 

Sliced Roast Beef, Mexican Style 38 

Smothered Beef 36 

Steak Rolls 33 

Stuffed Hamburg Roast 34 

Stuffed Steak in Fireless Cooker 33 

Stuffed Tripe 47 

Sweetbreads 45 

Sweetbread Patties 46 

Swiss Steak 30 

Swiss Steak No. 2 30 

Tongue in Tomato Aspic 42 

Tripe 46 

Tripe a la Creole 47 

Tripe Batter 48 

Vienna Steaks 32 

Page Fifty-two